geologych16 - Chapter 16 Nonrenewable Resources 1. Types of...

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Chapter 16 Nonrenewable Resources 1. Types of Energy Resources a. Solar and Commercial energy i. About 99% of the energy we use for heat comes from the sun and the other 1% comes mostly from burning fossil fuels ii. The direct input of solar energy produces several other indirect forms of renewable solar energy 1. Wind 2. Hydropower (falling and flowing water) 3. Biomass (solar energy converted to chemical energy and stored in chemical bonds of organic compounds in trees and other plants) b. Relying on fossil fuels i. 76% of commercial energy used comes from nonrenewable fossil fuels c. Net Energy i. Net energy is the amount of high-quality usable energy available from a resource after subtracting the energy needed to make it available for use. 2. Oil a. Crude oil (science) i. Crude oil is a thick liquid containing hydrocarbons that we extract from underground deposits and separate into products such as gas, heating oil, and asphalt ii. Finding oil is first step
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1. Scientists conduct ground and air surveys, use satellites and do seismic surveys by exploding dynamite 2. Oil is dispersed in pores and cracks underground rock formations, somewhat like water saturating deposit iii. Extracting 1. High tech equipment drills oil 2. Drawn by gravity out of the rock pores and into the bottom of the well, is pumped to the surface 3. Peak production occurs a decade after initial contact 4. Producers only get about 35-50% of the oil out of an oil deposit iv. Refining 1. Crude oil is transported to a refinery a. There it is heated and distilled to separate it into components with different boiling points 2. Refining oil decreases its net energy yield and petroleum refining accounts for about 8% of all U.S. energy consumption. v. Petrochemicals 1. Products of oil distillation that are used as raw materials in industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, plastics… vi. Industrial biotechnology 1. Goal is to find ways to use carbohydrates extracted from thins that grow as building block organic chemicals for making and packaging an array of products. b. Global Oil Supplies-OPEC Rules i. 11 OPEC Countries have 78% of the worlds proven oil reserves and most of the worlds unproven reserves
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ii. OPEC members 1. Algeria 2. Indonesia 3. Iran a. 8.6% 4. Iraq a. 11% 5. Kuwait a. 9.2% 6. Libya 7. Nigeria 8. Qatar 9. Saudi Arabia a. 25% of crude oil reserves 10. United Arab Emirates a. 9.3% 11. Venezuela iii. Canada 15% iv. Three largest users of oil 1. US a. Imports 60% of its oil 2. China 3. Japan
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c. The world after oil production peaks
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2008 for the course GEOS 1024 taught by Professor Meschreiber during the Spring '08 term at Virginia Tech.

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geologych16 - Chapter 16 Nonrenewable Resources 1. Types of...

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