– to present or render in an unfamiliar artistic form to stimulate fresh
perception. Example: first long take in Mamma Roma acknowledges the instability of the frame.
- a form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are
equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meaning has
moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of
abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy.
Thus an allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning.
Free indirect discourse
– in literature, free indirect discourse is a technique which combines the
third person limited perspective with first person direct speech.
While direct discourse would be
something such as, “He thought, ‘We will leave tomorrow,’” free indirect discourse would be,
“He would leave tomorrow.”
in Pasolini’s words, it is, simply, the immersion of the filmmaker
in the mind of his character and then the adoption on the part of the filmmaker not only of the
psychology of his character but also of his language (175).
- a sensational dramatic piece with exaggerated characters and exciting events
intended to appeal to the emotions.
- film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class,
filmed in long takes on location, frequently using nonprofessional actors for secondary and
sometimes primary roles.
More generally, neo-realism is an artistic movement representing a
modified form of realism.
– As Fassbinder repeatedly said, it was his dream to create a "German
Hollywood" by making films that would be commercially viable while at the same time not
uncritical of the society which they reflect.
– refers to everything that appears before the camera and its arrangement – sets,
props, actors, costumes, and lighting. Mise en scène also includes the positioning and movement
of actors on the set.
– the expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite,
typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
– an artistic work in a style that imitates that of another work, artist, or period.
– an editing technique used in films to establish continuity. In a cross-cut, the
camera will cut away from one action to another action. Because the shots occur one after
another, cross-cutting is used to suggest simultaneity of action. However, it can also be used to
link significant actions that do not occur simultaneously. For instance, in D.W. Griffith's A
Corner in Wheat, the film cross-cuts between the activities of rich businessmen and poor people
waiting in line for bread. This creates a sharp dichotomy between the two actions, and
encourages the viewer to compare the two shots. Often, this contrast is used for strong emotional