Judaism Glossay - JUDAISM GLOSSARY 70 CE Date of the...

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JUDAISM GLOSSARY 70 CE : Date of the destruction by the Romans of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (i.e., the end of Judaism being centered on sacrificial ritual), the destruction of the city of Jerusalem, the end of the Kingdom of Judah (i.e., the end of a landed national status for the people of Israel), and perhaps the most decisive event characterizing the experience of Exile (Diaspora) for the People of Israel. (It did not begin the experience of Exile, which began with the destruction by the Babylonians of the First Temple and the literal exile of the Jewish ruling and intellectual classes in 722 BCE, if not with the earlier destruction of the Northern Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians in 786 BCE. Abraham : The first of the patriarchs of the people of Israel, model of authentic faith in God, the first person (according to Jewish belief) to be singled out to live in covenant with God, the covenant that would eventually embrace the whole people of Israel (who consider themselves direct descendants of Abraham, whether by birth or adoption). Abraham is claimed as the progenitor and model of faith by Christians and by Muslims also. Aggadah : One of the two subject matters of the Oral Torah, especially having to do with the purposes of the commandments, but encompassing everything in the Torah other than the commandments of God and their implications. It encompasses matters of belief (e.g., about the nature of God, what actually happened at Mt. Sinai, the last things, life after death), among other things. According to the Oral Torah, interpretation of aggadah is not as restrictive as interpretation of halakhah; consequently differing interpretations are allowed, though they should be well-reasoned interpretations. Akiba (c50-c132 CE): One of the most respected of the rabbis whose interpretations and arguments are preserved in the Talmud. He died a martyr at the hands of the Romans. ["c" before a date means that it is uncertain.) Bar mitzvah : The ceremony in which a 13-year-old boy becomes an adult member of the Jewish community. It minimally involves coming forward to recite the formal blessing in Hebrew over the portion of the Torah to be read in the synagogue service. The words literally mean "son of the commandment." Bat mitzvah : The equivalent of the bar mitzvah ceremony for girls in Reform and Conservative congregations. The words literally mean "daughter of the commandment." Cantor : Leader of Jewish synagogue worship, which is sung or chanted in accordance with various ancient melodies. A professional cantor is not necessary. Basically anyone who knows the prayers and who is respected in the community can serve as worship leader. In Orthodox and pre-modern synagogues, the leader must be male and a bar mitzvah .
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Circumcision : A boy's initiation ritual as a member of the covenant between God and the people of Israel, involving removal of the foreskin of the penis. It normally occurs on the 8th day after birth and is called brit milah (covenant of circumcision).
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