: Date of what Christians believe to be the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and
Ascension of Jesus, and of Pentecost, the birthday of the Christian church (inclusively
: Date when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire; thus
also of the so-called "marriage of Church and State" and the legacy of that "marriage"
over time, known as "the Constantinian heritage." The use of Christianity by the Roman
Government to serve its own purposes and the cooperation of the Church with Roman
Imperial interests had begun much earlier in the first quarter of the century with
: Date of the so-called "Great Schism" in which the Eastern Orthodox tradition
and the Roman Catholic tradition (or the Western Church) historically were thought to
: Traditional date on which Martin Luther nailed a long list of complaints
against the Roman Catholic church to the door of Wittenberg Castle for the purpose of
public debate, but which became (unknown to him at the time) the fateful beginning of
the Protestant Reformation.
: (lit., "rebaptizer"). One or another of several groups making up the radical
wing of the Protestant Reformation, which rejected the validity of infant baptism and
insisted that only persons making a self-conscious choice for themselves to depart from
"the kingdoms of this world" and embrace "the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ" were
truly Christians, for whom baptism by immersion was the appropriate outward testimony.
They insisted that Christians were called to live a lifestyle distinct from that of the
common culture and that the Constantinian heritage of a state church was an
: Pertaining to the work or commission of an apostle (lit., "one sent on behalf of
another) of Jesus Christ. The twelve men which Jesus gathered around himself were
called apostles. Later, bishops in the early church were regarded as successors to the
apostles, generation after generation, and carrying that title. The work of bishops and
priests and, by extension, the work of a humble lay person done on behalf of Jesus and
what is understood to be his ongoing ministry (e.g., in proclaiming the Gospel), is called
(or rather, Thomas Aquinas) (1225-1274 CE): One of the very greatest of
Christian philosophers and theologians, who lived, taught, and wrote in the 13th century
in central Europe. He is widely recognized as having shown how the Christian faith and
pagan Greek philosophy in its most challenging form, the systematic thought of Aristotle,
could be reconciled without compromise to either faith or philosophy. Roman Catholics
consider him the greatest of Christian philosophers and theologians.