Midterm 2 Study Guide

Midterm 2 Study Guide - b. Problems with Spinoza's...

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PHIL 1020 Midterm 2 Study Guide (11/1) You will need a blue book for the exam (11/1). The exam will be composed of ten short answer questions. You must complete the test without the aid of your notes or textbook. This study guide is incomplete (10/22) Study Guide Outline I. Pascal A. The wager 1. The argument. 2. The objections (and responses). i. Cannot force belief. (and response) ii. Many Gods. (and response) iii. Uber-rational God. iv. Proves too much. II. Spinoza A. Argument for Monism 1. Initial phrasing of argument and problems with the argument. 2. Defense of the claim that no substances can share attributes. i. Substances cannot be differentiated by their attributes. a. Why Spinoza needs the claim that if substances share one attribute they must share all attributes. b. How Spinoza defends that claim. ii. Substances cannot be differentiated by their modes. a. Spinoza's argument for this claim.
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Unformatted text preview: b. Problems with Spinoza's argument. B. Explanation of the field metaphysic. C. Necessity 1. If we follow from the existence of God how can it be that we do not exist everywhere and always? III. Leibniz A. Necessity and Possibility. 1. The worry for Leibniz - why it seems like he is committed to only one possible world. i. Response 1: The world is the best because God choose it. Problems with this. ii. Response 2: More than one best possible world. Problems with this. iii. Response 3: Free will of created creatures. How the Principle of Sufficient Reason makes this response problematic. iv. Response 4: The infinite analysis solution. B. Leibniz's notion of Substance IV. Locke A. Personal Identity. 1. Body criterion. (Locke against) 2. Soul criterion. (Locke against) 3. Memory criterion. i. Problems for Locke - threat of circularity...
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