Precis 5 - ࡱ> ,. a PjbjbA]A]

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Unformatted text preview: ࡱ> ,.+a PjbjbA]A] '+?+?@ jjjjjjj8: F  ^^^^^^^^# % % % % % % ,N RxQ j^^^^^Q jj^^f ^j^j^# ~$jjjj^#  jj# R <t # | 0  # jdPrecis #5 In Paul Grices Logic and Conversation piece, Grice focuses on the way in which people behave through conversational implicatures. That is, when a speaker and hearer are present and the speaker verbally converses a statement, the hearer can determine what the statement means by the way in which it was spoken instead of what might have truly been said. Grices statement of such an observation leads him into the Cooperative Principle. This principle is broken down into four main categories in order to recognize the different types of conversational patterns that occur. And through this principle, Grice is able to more specifically explain how the hearer interprets what the speaker says. The Cooperative Principle can be defined as a rule that speakers and hearers accept in language in which they make contributions to that conversation in order to further the purpose of that conversation. In Grices explanations, the speaker is asserted to hold this cooperative principle and the hearer assumes that the speaker is holding the principle. The Cooperative Principle is broken into the following four categories: Quantity, Quality, Relation, and Manner. The purpose of quantity in a conversation is to be as respectfully informative as possible without providing more information than is needed. Grice uses the example of when someone might be helping him fix a car and he asks the individual helping him for four screws, Grice should assume his helper will give him four screws and not two or four. The purpose of quality in a conversation is to make sure that what is being said is true. Furthermore, one should not state something they know is false or have little evidence for. Grice uses the example of when he is baking a cake and asks a helper for sugar. Grice expects that his helper will give him sugar and not salt (or any other ingredient). The purpose of relation in a conversation is to ensure that what is stated is adequately related and appropriate to the conversation. But Grice asserts that this category forms various problems- what kinds of relevance exist, and how might these kinds change throughout a conversation, etc. Here, the example Grice uses is when he is mixing cake batter. Grice expects that his helper will not hand him items that are insignificant to the baking stage he is in. Since he is mixing cake batter, it would be inappropriate for his helper to hand him a cookbook. The purpose of the last category of manner is that statements in a conversation should be lucid, in that they are certain, hold one meaning, concise, and neatly arranged. Grice asserts that while conversing with someone, he expects that individual to be completely clear and fully understood with his or her contribution and for the execution of his or her action to hold purpose. Each category seems very rational and justifiable in the sense that I at least hold the cooperative principle in my conversations. I find personal examples that I can illustrate for each category of the principle. But there arises a problem from this. I can imagine someone that holds no expectations in life? They expect nothing and have no thought of the future. This person could not possibly help this principle to be true. No matter what argument against this there might be, I can still imagine such an individual with no expectations. 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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2008 for the course PHIL 1000 taught by Professor Heathwood, during the Spring '07 term at Colorado.

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