Exam I Review

Exam I Review - People and Dates Aristotle John Ray St....

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People and Dates Aristotle St. Augustine Thomas Aquinas Roger Bacon Francis Bacon Copernicus Galileo James Usher John Ray Linnaeus Buffon Hutton Cuvier Lyell Lamark Darwin Asa Gray Ernst Haeckel William Jennings Bryan Clarence Darrow John Scopes Ian Barbour http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/evotmline.html Order: L overs B uy H ot C lothing L ike L eather D enim: Linnaeus, Buffon, Hutton, Cuvier, Lyell, Lamark, Darwin & Wallace 1. What is the difference between science & scientism? (Review the article by Eugenie Scott.): Scientism – the philosophy of science (materialism, philosophical materialism) is what disturbs religion, not science itself. Scientism eliminates the possibility of a supernatural world stating that science & reason alone are sufficient to answer all important questions. 2. Distinguish between the scientific and colloquial use of the word "theory". Scientific theory : a set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted & can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena. Colloquial theory : assumption based on limited information or knowledge 3. Differentiate between science and pseudoscience. 1. Signs of intentional distortion 2. Outrageous claims 3. No verification by other experiments 4. Claim does not fit with what we know how the world works 5. Usually has confirmation bias. Need to check & recheck, verify & replicate, especially in attempts to falsify a claim 6. No confluence of evidence 7. Do not employ the accepted rules 8. Criticizes opponent & never affirm their belief to avoid criticism 9. If there is a new explanation, it does not account for many phenomena 10. Driven by bias conclusions 4. How does the scientific method differ from other forms of inquiry? Scientific Method requires precise steps: Observations, hypothesis, experiment, collect data, draw conclusion. 5. Give some examples of applied biology. (Chapter 1 Purves) Agriculture and medicine 6. What is evidential reasoning ? Has to have falsifiability, logic, comprehensiveness, honesty, replicability, & sufficiency. 7. **When was the age of theology? A.D. 200-1200 1
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8. What are 6 major evolutionary events that are important for understanding the characteristics of life? (Chapter 1 Purves) 1. Chemical evolution: begin life 4 bya when random inorganic chemical interactions produced molecules that had act as templates for other molecules 2. Cells (unicellular) formation (beginning of biological evolution) – interacting molecules enclosed in a system. For 2 billion yrs after cell formation, only prokaryotic cells (no internal membrane-enclosed compartments) existed. 3.
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Exam I Review - People and Dates Aristotle John Ray St....

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