PSC 2302 - F07 - PPT - Exam 3

PSC 2302 - F07 - PPT - Exam 3 - Religion and the...

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Religion and the Constitution “Congress shall make no law respecting an  establishment of religion, or prohibiting the  free exercise thereof.” – First Amendment
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The Religion Clauses Historic Texts Madison, “Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments” No coerced support of religious establishments Jefferson, “Letter to the Danbury Baptists” “Wall of separation”: No preference for religion Possible tension between Disestablishment and Free Exercise Disestablishment suggests neutrality Free exercise suggests facilitation Everson v. Ewing Township Board of Education  (1947) State provided bus transportation to non-public schools State argues that it is aid to students, not sects What does neutrality require? Majority (Black): Indirect benefit is not detrimental to the law Indirect benefits cannot be eliminated Dissent: High wall of separation: Indirect benefits must be avoided if possible Do religious exemptions violate the Establishment Clause? Making a legal distinction between the believer and the non-believer Legislative protection or judicial enforcement?
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Establishment Clause to 1992 Lemon v. Kurtzman  (1971) State reimburses nonpublic schools for cost of teaching secular subjects Majority develops the  Lemon Test : Must have a secular purpose Primary effect must be neutral Must avoid excessive entanglement Internal flaw in the test Wallace v. Jaffree  (1985) Moment of silence; legislature inserts “voluntary prayer” clause Is there a secular purpose? Majority:  No secular purpose State shows a preference for prayer Dissent (Rhenquist):  Attacks Lemon Test Neutrality between religion and irreligion is not required Lee v. Weisman  (1992) Ecumenical prayer at graduation Majority: Psychologically coercive; aids religion
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Establishment Clause since 1993 Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills School District  (1993) State provision of sign language interpreters Majority:  Indirect benefit to religion Rosenberger v. Univ. of Virginia  (1995) Student Activities Fees pays for student publications Christian Newspaper applies for funds University rejects request Majority: To withhold funds is content discrimination and therefore violates free speech O’Connor’s Concurrence: “flaws and dangers of a Grand Unified Theory”
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PSC 2302 - F07 - PPT - Exam 3 - Religion and the...

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