Exam II Review - Kim

Exam II Review - Kim - 2 Molecular Genetics 1. Make a...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 Molecular Genetics 1. Make a timeline of the early experiments that led to discovery of the gene. Know the experiments and researchers. 1. Darwin: genetic variation 2. Mendel: units of inheritance 3. Miescher: extracted an acidic material from nuclei of white blood cells nucleic acid 4. Feulgen: DNA staining technique a. The more DNA present in nuclei, the darker the stain b. Found that DNA was species-specific c. Found that all autosomal cells have same amount of DNA d. Sex cells have ½ the amount of DNA that body cells have 5. Archibald Garrod: metabolic disorders have a hereditary component (studied Alkaptanuria). Found that a defect in specific gene results in absence of specific enzyme. Wrote the book Inborn Errors of Metabolism 6. Mueller: genetic models (fruit flies), mutations (subjecting x-rays and increasing temperature to increase mutation rates), and biochemistry. Also a Nobel prize winner 2. Beadle and Tatum: Explain how mutant strains of bread mold were isolated and used to conclude each gene specifies a particular enzyme. - Spores of Neurospora crassa are subjected to x-rays and are placed in media to grow until spores are collected - Spores are also grown in minimal media. If spores can’t grow then mutation has occurred - Pieces of mutant mold are put in tubes containing minimal media plus one amino acid each. Mutant strain can only grow when certain amino acid is present in tube - Result: “one gene, one enzyme” hypothesis (altered gene altered phenotype altered enzyme) 3. Griffith: What organism did Frederick Griffith study? WHY? What was the difference in phenotype between the pathogenic strain and the non-pathogenic strain of this organism? 1928 He worked with 2 strains of pneumococcus bacteria. Smooth (S) – virulent and rough (R) – nonvirulent When S strain is injected mouse dies. Found living S strain cells in heart When R strain is injected mouse lives. Found no bacterial cells in heart When heat killed S strain is injected mouse lives. Found no bacterial cells in heart When dead S strain is mixed with R strain is injected mouse dies. Found living S strain cells Conclusion: Griffith found the “transforming principle” 4. Avery and coworkers: Summarize the experiment performed by Frederick Griffith and state the conclusions reached by Griffith and later by Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, and Colin Macleod. 1944 - Showed that DNA from S strain of a bacteriophage was responsible for transforming R strain into deadly form 1. Isolated substance from heat-killed bacteria 2. Treated with protease transformation 3. Treated with DNAase no transformation Conclusion: DNA is the transforming principle 5. D’Herelle: What observation led to the discovery of bacteriophage ? Found some locus diarrhea bacteria dishes have clear spots (plaques)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/03/2008 for the course BIO 1306 taught by Professor Adair,tamarah during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

Page1 / 11

Exam II Review - Kim - 2 Molecular Genetics 1. Make a...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online