StudyGuideExam3 - Communication 200 Study Guide Exam 3...

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Communication 200 Study Guide Exam 3 Chapter 6. Verbal Behavior Approaches 1. Ken described the “Social Construction of Reality” view of language. How does this view of language differ from the view of language as a descriptive tool? Social construction of Reality o Language does not merely reflect reality; it shapes what reality is, the perception of reality. Ex. Portrayal of the Iraq war by the U.S. news media vs. Al Jazeera As opposed to language as a descriptive tool means that we described what was happened, where S.C.R. shapes what is happening around us 2. Define signs and referents. Distinguish between signals and symbols. Provide examples of each. Signs- stand for or represent something o Types of signs signal (not deliberate, natural) Sweating because of nervousness symbol (no direct relationship, artificial, human constructed signs) intentional…no direct relationship rocks stone and a genre…pigs not dirty words, hand gestures, stop signs, etc. Referent o It is the thing or concept represented by the sign. The difference between the signals and symbols is that signal has a one to one relationship to the referent while symbol has no direct relationship to the referent. o Like symptoms, signals are not intentional, while symbols are intentional 3. What are the two kinds of meaning? Provide examples of each. Denotation o Literal dictionary meaning Mother=female parent For communication to work, there must be some shared understanding of denotation Connotation o Personal associations with a word Mother=loving, kind or mean, rude
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4. What is the essential premise of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis? Provide an example. Higher levels of thought depend upon language o Language shapes the way we view the world and how we behave The structure of a language influences the way the environment is understood Example o Eskimos have 22 words for the type of snow, so they have a better perception for what kind of snow it is, while we just say snow o concept of time Significance: our language shapes the way we see the world and behave o We need words to differentiate – the more you have the more you can differentiate; see something differently and behave differently 5. Why is the manner in which questions are phrased important? Describe a research study that illustrates this idea. Phrasing a question affects both perceptions and responses Example People are shown a car accident video o “How fast were the cars going when the cars hit each other?” o “How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? People tend to report significantly higher perceived speed in the second question, because of the word “smashed” 6. Name and give examples of four types of “Powerless” language.
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