Anthro 1 Lecture 5 - Macroevolution: Processes of...

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The Human Place in the Organic World Principles of Classification Definition of Species Vertebrate Evolutionary History: A Brief Summary Mammalian Evolution The Emergence of Major Mammalian Groups Processes of Macroevolution Classification is used to order organisms into categories to show evolutionary relationships. Example - human classification Kingdom: Animalia Subkingdom: Metazoan Phyla: Chordata Subphyla: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia Classification: Definitions Metazoa Multicellular animals. Chordata The phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates. Vertebrates Animals with segmented bony spinal columns; includes fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Principles of Classification The field that specializes in establishing the rules of classification is called taxonomy . Organisms are classified first on the basis of physical similarities. Basic physical similarities must reflect evolutionary descent in order for them to be useful. Homologies Similarities based on descent from a common ancestor. We all have the same structure of limbs and fingers. Analogies Similarities based on common function, with no assumed common evolutionary descent. Homoplasy The separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms. Two Approaches to Classification
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Anthro 1 Lecture 5 - Macroevolution: Processes of...

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