ch02 - Chapter 2 Families of Carbon Compounds Functional...

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Created by Professor William Tam & Dr. Phillis Chang Ch. 2 - 1 Chapter 2 Families of Carbon Compounds Functional Groups, Intermolecular Forces, & Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
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About The Authors These Powerpoint Lecture Slides were created and prepared by Professor William Tam and his wife Dr. Phillis Chang. Professor William Tam received his B.Sc. at the University of Hong Kong in 1990 and his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto (Canada) in 1995. He was an NSERC postdoctoral fellow at the Imperial College (UK) and at Harvard University (USA). He joined the Department of Chemistry at the University of Guelph (Ontario, Canada) in 1998 and is currently a Full Professor and Associate Chair in the department. Professor Tam has received several awards in research and teaching, and according to Essential Science Indicators , he is currently ranked as the Top 1% most cited Chemists worldwide. He has published four books and over 80 scientific papers in top international journals such as J. Am. Chem. Soc., Angew. Chem., Org. Lett., and J. Org. Chem. Dr. Phillis Chang received her B.Sc. at New York University (USA) in 1994, her M.Sc. and Ph.D. in 1997 and 2001 at the University of Guelph (Canada). She lives in Guelph with her husband, William, and their son, Matthew. Ch. 2 - 2
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Ch. 2 - 3 1. Hydrocarbons v Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms Alk ane s t hydrocarbons that do not have multiple bonds between carbon atoms pent ane cyclohex ane e.g.
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Ch. 2 - 4 Alk ene s t contain at least one carbon–carbon double bond prop ene cyclohex ene e.g.
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Ch. 2 - 5 Alk yne s t contain at least one carbon–carbon triple bond eth yne 1-pent yne e.g. C C H H 2-pent yne
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Ch. 2 - 6 Aromatic compound t contain a special type of ring, the most common example of which is a benzene ring benzene toluene e.g. benzoic acid CH 3 COOH
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Ch. 2 - 7 1A. Alkanes v The primary sources of alkanes are natural gas and petroleum v The smaller alkanes (methane through butane) are gases under ambient conditions v Methane is the principal component of natural gas v Higher molecular weight alkanes are obtained largely by refining petroleum H H H H Methane
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Ch. 2 - 8 1B. Alkenes v Ethene and propene, the two simplest alkenes, are among the most important industrial chemicals produced in the United States v Ethene is used as a starting material for the synthesis of many industrial compounds, including ethanol , ethylene oxide , ethanal , and the polymer polyethylene C C H H H H Ethene
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Ch. 2 - 9 v Propene is the important starting material for acetone , cumene and polypropylene v Examples of naturally occurring alkenes β -Pinene (a component of turpentine) An aphid alarm pheromone
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Ch. 2 - 10 1C. Alkynes v The simplest alkyne is ethyne (also called acetylene) v Examples of naturally occurring alkynes C C H H C O C C C C CH 3 Capillin (an antifungal agent) O Br Cl Br Dactylyne (an inhibitor of pentobarbital metabolism)
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Ch. 2 - 11 1D. Benzene v All bond lengths are the same (1.39 Å) (compare with C–C single bond 1.54 Å, C=C double bond 1.34 Å) v Extra stabilization due to resonance aromatic C C
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Ch. 2 - 12 v 3 Dimensional structure of benzene π -electrons above and below ring Planar structure All carbons sp 2 hybridized
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Ch. 2 - 13
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