ch01 - Chapter 1 The Basics Bonding and Molecular Structure...

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Created by Professor William Tam & Dr. Phillis Chang Ch. 1 - 1 Chapter 1 The Basics Bonding and Molecular Structure
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About The Authors These Powerpoint Lecture Slides were created and prepared by Professor William Tam and his wife Dr. Phillis Chang. Professor William Tam received his B.Sc. at the University of Hong Kong in 1990 and his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto (Canada) in 1995. He was an NSERC postdoctoral fellow at the Imperial College (UK) and at Harvard University (USA). He joined the Department of Chemistry at the University of Guelph (Ontario, Canada) in 1998 and is currently a Full Professor and Associate Chair in the department. Professor Tam has received several awards in research and teaching, and according to Essential Science Indicators , he is currently ranked as the Top 1% most cited Chemists worldwide. He has published four books and over 80 scientific papers in top international journals such as J. Am. Chem. Soc., Angew. Chem., Org. Lett., and J. Org. Chem. Dr. Phillis Chang received her B.Sc. at New York University (USA) in 1994, her M.Sc. and Ph.D. in 1997 and 2001 at the University of Guelph (Canada). She lives in Guelph with her husband, William, and their son, Matthew. Ch. 1 - 2
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Ch. 1 - 3 1. Introduction v The name Organic Chemistry came from the word organism v Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. Carbon , atomic number 6, is a second-row element. Although carbon is the principal element in organic compounds, most also contain hydrogen , and many contain nitrogen , oxygen , phosphorus , sulfur , chlorine , or other elements
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Ch. 1 - 4 v Most of the compounds found in nature - those we rely on for food , medicine , clothing (cotton, wool, silk), and energy (natural gas, petroleum) - are organic as well v Important organic compounds are not, however, limited to the ones we find in nature v Chemists have learned to synthesize millions of organic compounds never found in nature, including synthetic fabrics , plastics , synthetic rubber , medicines , and even things like photographic film & Super glue
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Ch. 1 - 5 2. Atomic Structure v Compounds made up of elements combined in different proportions v Elements made up of atoms v Atoms positively charged nucleus containing protons and neutrons with a surrounding cloud of negatively charged electrons
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Ch. 1 - 6 v Each element is distinguished by its atomic number (Z) v Atomic number = number of protons in nucleus
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Ch. 1 - 7
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Ch. 1 - 8 2A. Isotopes v Although all the nuclei of all atoms of the same element will have the same number of protons, some atoms of the same element may have different masses because they have different numbers of neutrons. Such atoms are called isotopes
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Ch. 1 - 9 v Examples (1) 12 C 13 C 14 C (6 protons 6 neutrons) (6 protons 7 neutrons) (6 protons 8 neutrons) Hydrogen (1 proton 0 neutrons) Deuterium (1 proton 1 neutron) Tritium (1 proton 2 neutrons) (2) 1 H 2 H 3 H
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Ch. 1 - 10 2B. Valence Electrons v Electrons that surround the nucleus exist in shells of increasing energy and at increasing distances from the nucleus. The most important shell , called the valence shell ,
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