Theories of Intelligence

Theories of Intelligence - Theories of Intelligence A...

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Theories of Intelligence  A typical dictionary definition of intelligence is “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.”  Intelligence  includes  the ability to benefit from past experience, act purposefully, solve problems, and adapt to new situations.  Intelligence can also be defined as “the ability that intelligence tests measure.” There is a long history of  disagreement about what actually constitutes intelligence.  Savant Syndrome  Savant syndrome, observed in some individuals diagnosed with autism or mental retardation, is characterized by exceptional talent in one area of functioning, such  as music or math, and poor mental functioning in all other areas. The G Factor Charles Spearman proposed a general intelligence factor, g, which underlies all intelligent behavior. Many scientists  still believe in a  general intelligence factor  that underlies the specific abilities that intelligence tests measure. Other  scientists are skeptical, because people can score high on one specific ability but show weakness in others.  Eight Types of Intelligence In the 1980s and 1990s, psychologist Howard Gardner proposed the idea of not one kind of intelligence but eight,  which are relatively independent of one another. These eight types of intelligence are: 1. Linguistic: spoken and written  language  skills  2. Logical–mathematical: number skills  3. Musical: performance or composition skills  4. Spatial: ability to evaluate and analyze the visual world  5. Bodily-kinesthetic: dance or athletic abilities  6. Interpersonal: skill in understanding and relating to others  7. Intrapersonal: skill in understanding the self  8. Nature: skill in understanding the natural world  Gardner  believes that each of these domains of intelligence has inherent value but that culture and context may  cause some domains to be emphasized over others. Critics of the idea of multiple intelligences maintain that these  abilities are talents rather than kinds of intelligence. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Also in the 1980s and 1990s, Robert Sternberg proposed a triarchic  theory  of intelligence that distinguishes among  three aspects of intelligence: Componential intelligence: the ability assessed by intelligence tests  Experiential intelligence: the ability to adapt to new situations and produce new ideas  Contextual intelligence: the ability to function effectively in daily situations  Emotional Intelligence Some researchers distinguish emotional intelligence as an ability that helps people to perceive, express, understand,  and regulate emotions. Other researchers maintain that this ability is a collection of 
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Theories of Intelligence - Theories of Intelligence A...

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