Biology 118 chapter 2+3

Biology 118 chapter 2+3 - Biology 118-chapter 2+3+4+5...

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Biology 118-chapter 2+3+4+5 Energy: the capacity to do work or to supply heat. Potential energy : stored energy Kinetic energy: the energy of motion. Thermal energy : the kinetic energy of molecular motion. Temperature : is the measurement of thermal energy. First law of thermodynamics : -Energy is neither created nor destroyed. -it simply changes form. 2 nd law of thermodynamics : states that entropy always increases in an isolated system. In the case of burning, the What makes a chemical Rxn spontaneous?? 1) reactions tend to be spontaneous if the product have lower potential energy than the reactants. +H=endothermic -H= exothermic 2) reactions tend to be spontaneous when the product molecules are less ordered than the reactant molecules. Entropy(S): the amount of disorder in a group of molecules. Increase in entropy (+S)= spontaneous. -chemical Rxn are spontaneous when delta G is less than zero. Delta G< 0, exergonic Delta G> 0, endergonic. Delta G=0, equilibrium. Delta G= delta H-T*deltas OIL, RIG. Oxidation is loss, reduction is gain. Six functional groups commonly attached to carbon atoms: 1) amino 2) carbonyl 3) carboxyl 4) hydroxyl 5) phosphate 6) sulfhydroyl Properties of water: 1) universal solvent (hydrogen bonds, polar molecules, oxygent-negatively charged). Hydrogen bonding makes it possible for almost any charged or polar molecule to dissolve in water.
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2) water is denser as liquid than solid. 3)
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Biology 118 chapter 2+3 - Biology 118-chapter 2+3+4+5...

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