2-ian's notes for test 2

2-ian's notes for test 2 - V Other Foreign Policy Changes 1...

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V) Other Foreign Policy Changes 1) Russia: Revolution looked democratic; wasn’t -Bolsheviks took over, turned country communist, signed peace treaty with Germany to get out of the war -Allies had sent supplies to Russia which were now at risk of being taken by Germany -Troops were sent to Russia to guard stockpiles – stayed till 1920 2) U.S. sent aid to Europe -Want to get economies back -27 million tons of food -1 billion medical supplies VI) Leading the Peace A) Wilson’s Vision -Wants major role in peace settlement -14 points -3 goals of 14 points: 1) Countries should be able to determine their own government 2) Free trade 3) Create League of Nations -Governmental body where all countries are represented -If one country is attacked, all are B) Wilson at Paris Peace Conference -Negotiated with Great Britain and France -Opposition -Great Britain and France had lost more troops -Wanted to make sure Germany never wages war again -Reparations -Create buffer zone between Germany and other nations -Force Germany to sign a war guilt clause: Take responsibility for war -Wilson wanted none of these; League of Nations can solve all problems C) Versailles Treaty -Reparations, buffer zone, guilt clause, and League of Nations included D) No American Ratification -Democrats on board; needed republicans -Republican Groups: 1) Reservationists -Wanted changes before they would sign
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-Wilson took no Republicans to Paris -Objected placing U.S. troops under the League of Nations 2) Irreconcilables -Will never sign -Wilson refuses to give in -Goes on a speaking tour -Speaks to constituents (going over the heads of Senators) -45 speeches – has a stroke -Blames republicans -All democrats, no republicans on ratification -Change to treaty: Democrats and irreconcilables vote no -U.S. never signed the treaty – signed a separate treaty a year later World War I and Progressive Reform * Historians argue that Progressive reform ended with WWI I) Aid to Victims of New Society -Forgotten II) Promoting Democracy -Continues but different and less so -Mainly through the 19 th Amendment – Women’s suffrage – ratified during the war -Arguments 1) Women equal to men -Didn’t work 2) Women are different than men – bring new vantage point 3) Use War -Voted no in the South except Tennessee which was all it needed to pass with 2/3 -South saw this as federal intervention in suffrage – threat to their oppression of blacks III) Bringing Order and Efficiency -U.S. has to get involved during war to make sure products are made for war -War Industries Board -Government representatives work with businesses that produce war materials -Production went up 25% IV) Imposing Morality -Government attacks immorality -Related to war
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1) Prostitution -If troops get VD before going to Europe it will hurt the war effort -Shut down red light districts and arrested prostitutes 2) Alcohol -Impede ability to fight -At the time of the war, half of States were dry -Illegal to sell alcohol to men in uniform -18 th Amendment -Prohibition -Quickly ratified 3) Campaign to make Americans think a certain way
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