Chapter 29

Chapter 29 - Chapter 29: Respiration Impacts & Issues...

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Chapter 29: Respiration
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In the US, about 3000 teenagers take up smoking every day In the US, about 3000 teenagers take up smoking every day Just one cigarette immobilizes cilia that line airways of lungs for hours, preventing them from sweeping away airborne pathogens and pollutants Nicotine has many side effects, including contraction of blood vessels and raising BP Smoking inc risk of deadly lung cancers Impacts & Issues
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Why Exchange Gases? Gas exchange supports cellular respiration In vertebrates O2-rich air inhaled and O2 deposited in blood O2 transported to body cells by blood Blood transports CO2 from tissues to lungs CO2 released from lungs (and body) during exhalation
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Common Features of Animal Respiratory Systems All animal respiratory systems share 3 features: (1) Respiratory surface must be moist so gases can diffuse across cell membranes (2) Cells lining respiratory surface are thing to optimize gas diffusion (3) The respiratory surface area must be large to allow for adequate gas exchange
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Some Animals in Moist Environments Lack Specialized Respiratory Structures Gases diffuse short distances in smaller animals to reach cells. Gas exchange optimized by long, flat bodies with greater surface area. Examples: roundworms and flatworms
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Some Animals in Moist Environments Lack Specialized Respiratory Structures Low energy demands translate into larger animals that rely on their moist body surface for gas exchange Larger size possible because less O@ needed by cells Example: jellyfish
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Some Animals in Moist Environments Lack Specialized Respiratory Structures Some animals bring the environment close to all their cells Allows greater exposure of cells to O2 Example: sponges
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Some Animals in Moist Environments Lack Specialized Respiratory Structures Other animals combine large skin surface area with well0developed circulation for delivery to cells Skin has many capillaries that carry O2 to internal body tissues. This arrangement sustains a favorable O2 concentration gradient between skin and blood. Example: Earthworm
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Respiratory Systems Facilitate Gas Exchange Respiratory systems more effectively exchange gases between the environment and an animal’s body Respiratory systems alternate bulk flow of air/water and diffusion of gases Bulk flow: describes when fluids or gases move through spaces from high pressure to low pressure
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Respiratory Systems Facilitate Gas Exchange In mammals Air moves past respiratory surface by bulk flow (down pressure gradient) O2 and CO2 are exchanged by diffusion Gases transported to/from tissues by bulk flow Gases exchanged with tissues (cells) by diffusion
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Oxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood CO 2 O 2 CO 2 O 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 alveoli (air sacs) left atrium right atrium right ventricle left ventricle O 2
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Gills Facilitate Gas Exchange in Aquatic Environments Gills
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course BIOL 1002 taught by Professor Pomarico during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter 29 - Chapter 29: Respiration Impacts & Issues...

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