Ch13(07)

Ch13(07) - Chapter 13 Earthquakes Read Chapter 13 Outline...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 Earthquakes Read Chapter 13 Outline I. The cause of earthquakes The elastic rebound theory I. Measurement of Earthquakes A. Seismograph. B. Types of earthquake waves P waves S waves Surface waves C. Locating epicenter D. Magnitude of earthquakes - Richter scale III. Global distribution of earthquakes A. Divergent boundary earthquakes B. Convergent boundary earthquakes C. Transform boundary earthquakes D. Mid-plate earthquakes IV. Earthquake hazard in the US What are earthquakes? Earthquakes are vibrations of the Earth. They are caused by the rupture and sudden movement of rocks when they are strained beyond their limit (strength). Stress- the force per unit are that deforms the rock Strain- the measure of the amount of deformation Cause of earthquakes: Elastic Rebound Theory a) Initial condition, no strain b) Strain is built up as the rock is under stress (sheer force in this picture) c) Rupture occurs along a fault- reducing stress and allowing the rock to rebound d) Rocks along either side of the fault slip suddenly setting off ground vibrations Focus, epicenter and seismic waves Focus the point within the earth where the initial rupture occurs Epicenter the point on earths surface directly above the focus When the rocks slip, seismic waves travel onward from the focus Measurement of earthquakes Seismograph is an instrument that records ground motions...
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Ch13(07) - Chapter 13 Earthquakes Read Chapter 13 Outline...

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