Ch5-lecture notes

Ch5-lecture notes - Chapter 5 Sediments and sedimentary rocks This week’s assignment Read Chapter 5 Sedimentary rocks Guadalupe Mountains NM

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 Sediments and sedimentary rocks This week’s assignment: Read Chapter 5 Sedimentary rocks, Guadalupe Mountains, NM Outline I. Classification of sedimentary rocks A. Clastic sedimentary rocks - by size 1. Conglomerates 2. Sandstone 3. Siltstone 4. Shale B. Chemical and biological sedimentary rocks 1. Chemical - limestone, rock salt, gypsum 2. Biochemical - chalk, chert, coal II. Transportation III. Sedimentary environments A. Continental Fluvial, dessert, lake, glacial B. Near shore Delta, Beach C. Marine Shelf Continental margin Deep Sea IV. Lithification and diagenesis A. Compaction and dehydration B. Cementation V. Sedimentary structures A. Stratification B. Cross bedding C. Graded bedding D. Ripple marks, mud cracks, burrows of organisms Why are sedimentary rocks important? • They preserve the history of events, life and environment on Earth • They are reservoirs of energy resources, such as oil, gas, and coal. Sedimentary rocks are produced by surface processes in the rock cycle • Weathering • Erosion • Transportation • Deposition • Burial • Diagensis Two main types of sediments 1. Clastic sediments Solid fragments derived from physical and chemical weathering of rocks. May be minerals inherited from parent rocks (e.g. quartz and feldspars) or new minerals formed from chemical weathering (e.g. clay minerals, iron oxide) 2. Chemical and biological sediments a. chemical sediments (inorganic) Precipitation from saline lakes or ocean as a result of evaporation b. biological Calcium carbonate and silica shells of organisms Vegetation- peat and coal A. Clastic sedimentary rock:A....
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course GEOL 1001 taught by Professor Baksi during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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Ch5-lecture notes - Chapter 5 Sediments and sedimentary rocks This week’s assignment Read Chapter 5 Sedimentary rocks Guadalupe Mountains NM

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