Chapter 2 lecture notes

Chapter 2 lecture notes - Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics: The...

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Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics: The unifying theory
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Assignment for this week Review Chapter 1,9 notes and text Read Chapter 2, pp. 19 - 43
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Chapter 2 Outline I. What is Plate Tectonic Theory II. Continental drift - early evidence Jigsaw puzzle fit of continents Match of rock types Fossils Glacial deposits III. Seafloor spreading - evidence Topography of the seafloor Magnetic pattern on the seafloor IV. Plate tectonics A. Plate geography and motion B. Plate boundary processes
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Processes at three types of plate boundaries 1. Divergent boundary Mid-ocean ridges Red Sea East Africa Rift Valley - beginning of a new ocean basin 1. Convergent boundary a. Ocean-ocean convergence - trench, island arc b. Ocean-continent convergence - deep sea trench, mountain range, volcanoes c. Continent - continent convergence mountains (Himalayas) 3. Transform fault boundary Seafloor fracture zones, St. Andreas fault
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Outline cont. V. Seafloor magnetism and age VI. Mechanism of plate movement VII. Reconstructing the history of oceans and continents
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Continental drift - history 17 th century: Frances Bacon noticed parallel shorelines of South America and Africa 19 th century: Eduard Suess pieced the southern continents together and called it Gondwanaland
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Pangea - all land In 1915 Alfred Wagener proposed that all continents were once joined as a supercontinent called Pangea.
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Pangea began to break up 200 million years ago and slowly drifted apart to today’s position Supporting evidence includes the shape of the continents, common rock types and fossils in Africa and South America, and glacial deposits found in presently warm places.
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Seafloor spreading First convincing evidence came from mapping the seafloor after World War II.
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The structure of the seafloor Discovered ocean ridges and rift valleys 1960’s Harry Hess proposed that ocean crust separate along the rift of the mid- ocean ridges.
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The Pacific Seafloor
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The first convincing piece of evidence is the makeup of the seafloor. The second convincing evidence is the
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Chapter 2 lecture notes - Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics: The...

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