{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Notes for Test 3

Notes for Test 3 - Notes for Test#3 Chapter 7 Rock...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Notes for Test #3 Chapter 7 Rock Deformation * Rock deformation * Looking at rocks in the field, we see that they can be broken (faulted ) or bend (folded ) by (deforming) forces FIG 7.1 o Faulting shows brittle behavior of rocks o Folding shows ductile behavior o The latter occurs only for rocks at considerable depth inside the earth * To understand “structures” formed by rocks in the field, we need to measure the orientation or rocks in the field; we need to measure the orientation of rocks in outcrops. o Measure, dip , and strike of beds. o Strike (compass) direction – e.g. N-S, NE-SW o Dip has a (compass) direction as well as an angle associated with it (FIG 7.2/3) * DIP AND STRIKE o Strike – the direction of a rock layer as it intersects the horizontal surface o Dip is measured at right angles to this, and measures the amount of tilting. o NOTE: strike and dip directions are always at right angles . o EXAMPLES: o Horizontal bed. Dip = 0 O Has no strike or dip direction o Bed strikes NW-SE (northwest-southeast) Dip can either be to NE or SW, and angle can be 1 O to 89 O o Dip and strike measurements are used to work out structure (see fig 7.4) * Stress – deforming force on rocks * Strain – the resultant change in shape or size * Summary of deformation o Three types of stress: o Compression  o (Ex)tension Shear
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
o If rocks behave in ductile manner, folding , stretching , and shearing , respectively. o In faulting, movement of two blocks of rocks occurs across the fault plane . o This fault plane (intersects the horizontal surface) has both dip and strike. o If rocks break, but there is no movement between the two blocks, it’s called the joint . * Brittle behavior – faults (FIG 7.7) o If rocks behave in brittle fashion: o Compression forces create reverse faulting o Extension forces create normal faulting o Shearing forces create strike-slip faulting o Faults are divided into two types o Dip-slip Movement occurs in direction of dip (has vertical component) UP OR DOWN o Strike-slip . In latter, movement occurs in strike direction (only horizontal movement) LEFT OR RIGHT * Dip-slip faults o Normal fault – caused by extension o Found at or near divergent plate boundaries . o Reverse fault – caused by compression o Found at or near convergent plate boundaries o In mountain building, there can be extreme shortening, blocks move tens of kilometers along low angles (< 15 O ) o Called thrust fault FIG 7.7 * Strike-slip faults o Caused by shearing. o Found at or near transform fault boundaries * Can also have oblique slip fault, caused by some amount of shearing and some amount of tension or compression. * Two dimensional figures of faults. o Normal faults – extension
Image of page 2
o Reverse faults – compression o Block faulting – two normal faults, central part falls down to make a “rift valley” 3/12/08 * Brittle VS. ductile behavior o Deep burial (higher temperature and confining pressure) favors ductile behavior – under these conditions the rocks tend to FOLD (folding behavior) * Folding o
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern