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Hematological Disorders

Hematological Disorders - Hematological Disorders...

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Hematological Disorders Hematological System Overview 0. The hematological system consists of the blood and the sites of blood production, the bone marrow and the lymph nodes. 0. Bone Marrow- is at the site of hematopoiesis, or blood cell formation 1. As an adult, marrow activity is usually limited to the pelvis, ribs, vertebrae and sternum, and is gradually replaced by fat -when the body needs more blood cells, as in infection or bleeding, marrow increases production 2. Stem cells within the bone marrow mature into blood cells. -have the ability to self-replicate -when stimulated, begin a process of differentiation into myeloid or lymphoid lymphoid- produce either T or B lymphocytes myeloid- differentiate into three broad cell types: RBC,WBC, or platelet (all blood cells derived from myeloid) Stem Cell definition 1. Primal cells common to all multi-cellular organisms that retain the ability to renew themselves through cell division and can differentiate in a wide range of specialized cell types. Research started in the 1960’s. Stem Cell Argument 3. The fertilized egg will be destroyed after the cells are harvested 4. January 2007, research discovered stem cells could be obtained from embryonic fluid Blood -exists in a fluid state -composed of plasma and various types of cells Plasma- fluid portion of blood -contains various proteins, such as albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, others necessary for clotting -as well as electrolytes, waste products, and nutrients -about 55% of blood is plasma -all blood cells circulate in this protein rich plasma Serum- portion of blood remaining after coagulation Blood Functions and Composition 1
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5. Supplies oxygen, food and other essential nutrients to body cells for cellular metabolism -carries hormones and antibodies to their sites of action or use 6. Affects defenses against infection 7. Assists in removal of waste materials -carries waste products by cellular metabolism to lungs, skin, liver, and kidneys 8. Whole blood has 3 main components 0. Erythrocytes (RBC)- -involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide -contain hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen -live approximately 120 days -flexible, and able to pass easily through cappilarries -thin, so gases such as oxygen and CO2 can easily diffuse across it -round and disk shaped, so large surface area facilitates absorption and release of O2 for norm production, BM requires iron, vit B 6&12, folic acid, and protein -Erythropoietin (hormone from kidney)- released when kidney detects low oxygen levels (anemia) -increased levels stimulate bone marrow to increase RBC 1. Thrombocytes (platelets) -Prevents bleeding by forming clots, no nucleus or DNA -Thrombocytopenia (deficiency of platelets) -Aid in clotting by releasing thromboplastin (factor III) necessary for conversion of prothrombin to thrombin -not actual cells but granular fragments of giant cells in the BM called megakaryocytes -play an essential role in the control of bleeding -circulate freely in the blood in an active state, and nurture the
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