Adult Health II Notes 2

Adult Health II Notes 2 - Intestinal Disorders *Go over...

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Intestinal Disorders *Go over terms 1 The client with an intestinal disorder will usually have a problem with bowel elimination. 2 Manifestations of intestinal disorders vary according to which function (motility, digestion, or absorption ) is disturbed and the cause of the disturbance. Small Intestine (about 20ft long) 1 Begins at pyloric sphincter and ends at the ileocecal valve 2 Consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum Functions/Characteristics of the Small Intestine 1 Primary site of digestion and absorption of nutrients 2 Is lined with villi (help food propel) that contain capillaries and lymphatics 3 Motor activity includes mixing and peristalsis Accessory Digestive Organs 1 Liver-secretes bile, process carbs and proteins, degrades excess nutrients and converts to subst essential to body; primary function is metabolisms 2 Pancreas-secretes digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, trypsin), blood glucose 3 Gallbladder- stores bile 4 Ductal System- pancreatic enzymes released into bile duct Large Intestine (about 5 ft long) 1 Consists of the cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, and anus 3 Segments of the colon are the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon (-ostomy) Functions of the Large  Intestine 1 absorption of water and electrolytes 2 Synthesis of Vitamin K * 3 Storage and elimination of fecal material Large Intestine 1 The anus has an internal involuntary sphincter and an external voluntary sphincter 2 The defecation reflex is initiated when feces enter the rectum and stretches the rectal wall Diagnostics to identify Intestinal Disorders 1. Stool for Occult Blood-  **Advise patient to avoid red meat, iron, anticoagulants, aspirin, or Vitamin C for 1 to  3 days before test. These can cause false positive results! ~analysis of stool for blood using chemical subst, such as guiaac, hema-occult, or hema-test ~can perform on nursing unit ~red meat contains Hgb 1
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2. Small Bowel Follow Through-       Contrast Enhanced X-Ray Study  (Also referred to as Upper GI Series, Small  Bowel Series, or Barium Swallow) -  performed to identify abnormalities in the sm. bowel ~drink barium; x-ray taken q 15-30min—take x-ray at intervals to see how barium is moving through GI tract ~can go through NG tube ~ helpful in detecting Fistulas ~ Flow fast of barium transit time may indicate hypermotility  ex. Malabsorption syndrome ~failure of barium to flow through can be seen in pt with complete mechanical bowel obstruction ~ Significant delays in transmit time of barium may indicate both malignant and benign forms of partial obstruction or  diminished intestinal motility (ex. Ileus) Nursing Considerations for Small Bowel Series 1
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Adult Health II Notes 2 - Intestinal Disorders *Go over...

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