Respiratory 1 notes

Respiratory 1 notes - 1 Respiratory Functions: o Alveolar...

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Respiratory Functions: o Alveolar ventilation : air flows in from the environment o Gas Diffusion – process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged at the air-blood interface. The alveolar-capillary membrane is ideal for diffusion because of its large surface area and thin membrane. o Lung or pulmonary perfusion – the actual blood flow through the pulmonary circulation. - Perfusion is influenced by alveolar pressure Structure: Lungs o Divided into right and left o Left lung has 2 lobes o Right lung has 3 lobes (upper, middle, and lower) o Between the lungs is the mediastinum that contains the heart, esophagus, and great vessels. The mediastinum houses the lungs o Mucous in lungs traps bacteria and expels it by coughing. o Cilia remove mucous out of the lungs. (people with COPD have less cilia and what cilia they do have are non-functioning) Structure: Airways o Upper airway includes the nose, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx and trachea o Nose warms, humidifies, and filters inspired air. By the time the air reaches the alveoli it is 100% saturated with moisture. - mucous secreted by goblet cells covers nasal mucosa and is moved back to nasopharynx by cilia - nose provides passage for air to pass to and from lungs o sinuses resonating chamber in speech and common site of infection o turbinate bones (conchae) increase mucous membrane surface of nasal passages and slightly obstruct air flowing through them - sensitive nerves detect odor and provoke sneezing o pharynx “throat” connects nose and oral cavity to larynx and provides passage for respiratory and digestive tracts o Larynx connects the upper and lower airway. - voice box that connects pharynx to trachea 1 1
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- protects lower airway from foreign substances - facilitates coughing - Epiglottis closes off the larynx during swallowing. o Trachea windpipe that serves as passage way between the larynx and the bronchi o Trachea divides into two main stem bronchi at the level of the carina. o Carina is very sensitive and when it is stimulated it will produce coughing. o Right main stem bronchus extends from the trachea more vertically (at an angle) than the left; therefore, there is a greater tendency to aspirate into the right lung. o Right main stem bronchus terminates into bronchioles which terminate into alveoli Lower Respiratory Tract: lungs and alveoli Structures : Gas Exchange o Bronchioles and alveoli are units of gas exchange (everything above is considered dead space no gas change occurs) o 300 million alveoli that have a potential volume of 2500 ml. (if their surfaces were united to form one sheet, it would cover 70 square meters (size of a tennis court)). o Everything above the terminal bronchioles and alveoli is anatomical dead space. Terminal bronchioles do not have mucous glands or cilia. o
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Respiratory 1 notes - 1 Respiratory Functions: o Alveolar...

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