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Mobility and Immobility

Mobility and Immobility - Mobility and Immobility Body...

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Mobility and Immobility o Body mechanics coordinated efforts of the musculoskeltal system and nervous system to maintain balance, posture, and body alignment during lifting, bending, and performing ADL’s c Use of proper body mechanics reduces the risk of injury, facilitates the ease of body movement and allow for more efficient use of energy c Proper body mechanics are important to the safety and well being of the nurse and clients c Body alignment person’s center of gravity is stable and strain is minimized; contributes to balance o Balance is enhanced with a wide base of support and correct posture when the body’s center of gravity is kept low and within the base of support o Impaired balance is major threat to the client’s safety, which can lead to a client’s fear of falls and self imposed restrictions on activity o Nursing measures should be aimed at client safety assessment and fall prevention strategies o To decrease surface area and reduce friction when a client is unable to assist in moving up in the bed, the client’s arms should be placed across the chest, to decrease surface area and reduce friction o Whenever possible, involve the client as use some the client’s strength when lifting, transferring, or moving clients. This can increase client participation in self care o Friction can be reduced by lifting, rather than pushing a client c Mobility refers to a person’s ability to move about freely c Immobility —refers to the inability to move about freely c Bed rest is an intervention that restrict client to bed for therapeutic reasons c Impaired physical mobility is a nursing diagnosis in which the person experiences or is risk to develop limitation of physical movement c Muscular deconditioning involves the loss of muscle strength due to lack of physical activity (3% loss per day) c Disuse atrophy is the reduction in the normal size of muscle fibers after prolonged inactivity from bed rest, trauma, etc. Objectives of Bed Rest o reduces physical activity and oxygen need by the body c reduces pain c allows ill or debilitated clients to rest c allows exhausted clients the opportunity for uninterrupted rest Systemic Effects of Bed Rest o Metabolic Changes o Decreased: metabolic rate, peristalsis, esophagus reflux , fluid output o Increased: BMR with fever, constipation, muscle loss, Ca resorption from bones leads to hypercalcemia (bones become brittle)
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Pulmonary Changes o Atelectasis collapsed alveoli from lack of oxygen and increased fluid in lungs; atelectasis can lead to hypostatic pneumonia o Hypostatic pneumonia inflammation of the lung from stasis or pooling of secretions c Cardiovascular Changes o Orthostatic hypotension drop in systolic BP of 20 mmHg or more when rising
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Mobility and Immobility - Mobility and Immobility Body...

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