Macromolecules - The Structure and Function of Macromolecules 1 Organic Chemistry C All living things are mostly composed of 4 elements H O N C honk

Macromolecules - The Structure and Function of...

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1 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules
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2 Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry All living things are mostly composed of 4 elements: H, O, N, C “ honk Complex “ Organic Compounds known as Polymers ( “ Macromolecules” ) Large molecules bound together (usually by covalent bonds) Made of smaller molecules (not atoms) called monomers Four Types : ... C
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3 Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers Dehydration (Synthesis) Reaction Condensation reactions (Puts things together) Creates Macromolecules Covalently bonds monomers ( Anabolic Makes new molecules) Endergonic (Requires energy) Lose a water molecule each time (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HO H 1 2 3 HO HO H 1 2 3 4 H H 2 O Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Figure 5.2A
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4 Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers Hydrolysis Reaction ( Hydrate ) Reverse of Dehydration Reaction Breaks down macromolecules ( Catabolic Breakdown in smaller compounds) Exergonic (Releases energy) EX: Digestion Adds/Uses Water (b) Hydrolysis of a polymer HO 1 2 3 H HO H 1 2 3 4 H 2 O H HO Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Figure 5.2B
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5 Macromolecule #1 Carbohydrates
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6 Carbohydrates… Carbohydrates… -ose -ose Serves as Fuel, Building Materials Includes : Sugars & sugar polymers Monosaccharides (Simple sugar) = MONOMER!!! Dissacharides (Double sugars) Polysaccharides (Multi-sugars) Made of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O) – Following ratio of elements C n H 2n O n
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7 Monosaccharides = Sugars Simplest sugars (CH 2 O) – Glucose…C 6 H 12 O 6 (most common) Can be used for fuel Cell Nutrients (Respiration) Can be combined into polymers Can be linear or rings
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8 Disaccharides = 2 Sugars Consists of two
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