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Unformatted text preview: Blood Administration Reasons for Blood Transfusions: to increase circulating blood volume o after surgery, trauma or hemorrhage o using whole blood or albumin to increase oxygen carrying capacity o for patients with severe anemia o using Packed Red Blood Cells To provide selected cellular components as replacement therapy o Clotting factors, platelets, albumin, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate (Factor 8) o WBCs for neutropenic patients Types of Blood Products Whole Blood 300-500 mL over 2-4 hours Packed Red Blood cells 200-250 ml over 2-4 hours Leukocyte (poor RBC) 200 ml over 2-4 hours o Prevents febrile, non-hemolytic transfusion Platelets 200-300 ml over 15-30 minutes Fresh frozen plasma (clothing factors) 200 ml over 30-60 minutes Cryoprecipitate 10-20 ml/unit can be infused or IV Push over 3 minutes WBC 400 ml over one hour Albumin usually 2-4 ml/minute Blood and Blood Components Commonly Used in Transfusion Therapy Whole blood Cells and plasma, 40% hematocrit Volume replacement and oxygen-carrying capacity; usually used in significant bleeding (25% or more blood loss) Packed RBCS RBCs with little plasma, 75% hematocrit; some platelets and WBCs remain Increases RBC mass; symptomatic anemia; platelets are not functional; WBCs may cause reaction and are not functional platelets-random Platelets, plasma, some RBCS and WBCS Bleeding due to severe loss of platelets; prevent bleeding when platelets (less than 5,000-10,000); survives less in the presence of fever, chills, infection; repeated treatment causes decrease chance of survival due to alloimmunization Plateletssingle donor Used for repeated treatment; decreases alloimmunation risk by limiting exposure to multiple donors Fresh Frozen Plasma Plasma, all coagulation factors, Complement Bleeding in patients with coagulation factor deficiencies; plasmapheresis Granulocytes (pheresed) Neutrophils, lymphocytes, some RBCs and platelets Severe neutropenia Lymphocytes (WBCS), apheresed Lymphocytes Stimulate graft-vs-disease effect Cryoprecipitate Fibrinogen, AHF, von willebrand factor, fibronectin Von Willebrands disease, Hypofibrinoginemia, Hemophilia A 1 Antihemolphilic Factor (AHF) Factor 8 Hemophilia A Factor 9 concentrate Factor 9 Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) Factor 9 complex Factor 2, 7 9, 10 Hereditary factor 7, 9, 10 deficiency; Hemophilia A with factor 7 inhibitors Albumin 5% and 25% albumin Hypoproteinemia; burns; volume expansion by 5% to increase blood volume; 25% to decrease hematocrit IV gamma globulin IgG antibodies Hypogammaglobulinemia (IN CLL, recurrent infections); ITP; primary immunodeficiency states Antithrombin 3 concentrate...
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course NURS 130 taught by Professor Dupuy during the Spring '08 term at Lady of the Lake.
- Spring '08