Cardio IV & V - Arterial Disorders

Cardio IV & V - Arterial Disorders - 1 Peripheral...

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Peripheral arterial disease: Term used to describe a variety of conditions affecting arteries in the neck, abdomen, and extremities. Can be subdivided into occlusive disease, aneurysmal disease, and vasospastic phenomenon. In contrast, venous diseases primarily affect the lower extremities and can be categorized into venous thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency. PERIPHERAL VASCULAR (Arterial) DISEASE Involves progressive narrowing and degeneration of the arteries of the neck, abdomen, and extremities. Atherosclerosis is the primary reason for PAD. Most significant risk factors: Nonmodifiable : age, esp after 50, history of heart disease, male gender, DM type 1, post-menopausal women, family history of dyslipidemia, PVD, or hypertension Modifiable : CAD, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking or use of tobacco products Other risk factors: obesity, family history, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Most common areas are those areas of bifurcation. Clinical manifestations occur when the vessel is between 60 and 75% occluded. Arteriosclerosis most common disease of the arteries. It actually means “hardening of the arteries.” It is the end result of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis different process it affects the intima of the blood vessels - these processes usually occur together, and the terms are used interchangeably - atherosclerosis is a process which is usually started as a result of a tear in the intimal lining of the artery (red blood cells stick to the tear) - there becomes a buildup of fatty material over time - arteriosclerosis is the resultant hardening of the artery as a result of that fatty buildup - physicians worry about cross clamping (clamping off blood supply during surgery) in these patients, because they could shatter the aorta Clinical manifestations of peripheral arterial disease : - depend on the organ affected, but can include o kidney (renal)failure o brain (CVA) o cardiac (chest pain and subsequent infarction) - diabetics are at increased risk of developing PAD Disorders of the aorta: 1) Aortic aneurysm : outpouchings or dilations of the arterial wall. a. Etiology and Pathophysiology of Aneurysms i. May involve aortic arch, thoracic aorta, and/or abdominal aorta. 1. most are below the renal arteries 2. occurs over time 1
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b. Classification of Aneurysms i. True and false aneurysms 1. A true aneurysm is one in which the wall of the artery forms the aneurysm, with at least one vessel layer still intact. They typically develop over time. True can be further subdivided: a. Fusiform circumferential and relatively uniform in shape (can be different sizes and have different symptoms) monitor feet, assess circulation (pedal pulses), respiratory status (lung sounds), usually on anticoagulants if not fixed by surgery b. saccular dilation does not involve the whole aorta; involves its own little sac Causes of true aneurysms: - the exact cause of true aneurysms are unknown. -
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Cardio IV & V - Arterial Disorders - 1 Peripheral...

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