Peripheral arterial disease: Term used to describe a variety of conditions
affecting arteries in the neck, abdomen, and extremities. Can be subdivided
into occlusive disease, aneurysmal disease, and vasospastic phenomenon. In
contrast, venous diseases primarily affect the lower extremities and can be
categorized into venous thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency.
PERIPHERAL VASCULAR (Arterial) DISEASE
Involves progressive narrowing and degeneration of the arteries of the neck,
abdomen, and extremities. Atherosclerosis is the primary reason for PAD.
Most significant risk factors:
age, esp after 50, history of heart disease, male gender, DM type 1,
post-menopausal women, family history of dyslipidemia, PVD, or hypertension
CAD, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity,
physical inactivity, smoking or use of tobacco products
Other risk factors: obesity, family history, sedentary lifestyle, and stress.
Most common areas are those areas of bifurcation. Clinical manifestations occur when
the vessel is between 60 and 75% occluded.
most common disease of the arteries.
It actually means
“hardening of the arteries.”
It is the end result of atherosclerosis.
it affects the intima of the blood vessels
these processes usually occur together, and the terms are used
is a process which is usually started as a result of a tear in
the intimal lining of the artery (red blood cells stick to the tear)
there becomes a buildup of fatty material over time
is the resultant
of the artery as a result of that
physicians worry about cross clamping (clamping off blood supply during
surgery) in these patients, because they could shatter the aorta
Clinical manifestations of peripheral arterial disease
depend on the organ affected, but can include
cardiac (chest pain and subsequent infarction)
diabetics are at increased risk of developing PAD
Disorders of the aorta:
: outpouchings or dilations of the arterial wall.
a. Etiology and Pathophysiology of Aneurysms
May involve aortic arch, thoracic aorta, and/or abdominal aorta.
most are below the renal arteries
occurs over time