Exam 1 review - Section One Exam Review Heather Bliss MA...

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Section One: Exam Review Heather Bliss, MA
Chapter 1 What is psychology? Psychology is the study of the mind, brain, and behavior.
Critical Thinking Systematically questioning and evaluating information using well-supported evidence Erroneous errors: Ignoring evidence Failing to judge source credibility Misunderstanding/not using statistics Seeing relationships that do not exist Using relative comparisons After the fact explanations Mental shortcuts Self-serving bias
Foundations of Psychology Schools of thought Structuralism – conscious experience can be broken down into basic components. Used introspection. Functionalism – concerned with adaptive purpose, or function, of the mind and behavior. Gestalt – the whole of personal experience is different from the sum of it’s parts. Behaviorism – emphasizes the role of environmental forces in observable behavior. Cognitive Psychology – study of mental functions (thinking, language, memory, etc) Social Psychology – how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
Controversy in Psychology Mind/body problem (dualism) – are the mind and body separate and distinct? Nature/nurture debate – Are we born with a blank slate or are we preprogrammed?
Important People in Psychology William Wundt William James Mary Whiton Calkins Francis Sumner Kenneth Clark B.F. Skinner John B. Watson John Stuart Mill Sigmund Freud
Levels of Analysis Biological – Neuroanatomy, animal research, brain imaging, etc. Individual – Personality, gender, decision making, memory, etc. Social – Groups, relationships, attitudes, stereotypes, etc. Cultural – Norms, beliefs, values, ethnicity, etc.
Chapter 2 Primary goals of science: Description - what? Prediction - when? Control - what cause? Explanation - why?
The Scientific Method The six steps of the scientific method Forming a hypothesis Conduct a literature review Design a study Conduct the study Analyze the data Report the results
Theories and Hypotheses Theory: a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed, makes predictions about future events, and is based on empirical evidence Hypothesis: a specific, testable prediction, narrower than the theory it is based on.
What Makes a Good Theory?

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