Chapter 1•What is psychology? –Psychology is the study of the mind, brain, and behavior.
Critical Thinking•Systematically questioning and evaluating information using well-supported evidence•Erroneous errors:–Ignoring evidence–Failing to judge source credibility–Misunderstanding/not using statistics–Seeing relationships that do not exist–Using relative comparisons–After the fact explanations –Mental shortcuts–Self-serving bias
Foundations of Psychology•Schools of thought–Structuralism– conscious experience can be broken down into basic components. Used introspection. –Functionalism– concerned with adaptive purpose, or function, of the mind and behavior. –Gestalt– the whole of personal experience is different from the sum of it’s parts.–Behaviorism– emphasizes the role of environmental forces in observable behavior. –Cognitive Psychology – study of mental functions (thinking, language, memory, etc)–Social Psychology – how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
Controversy in Psychology•Mind/body problem (dualism) – are the mind and body separate and distinct?•Nature/nurture debate – Are we born with a blank slate or are we preprogrammed?
Important People in Psychology•William Wundt•William James•Mary Whiton Calkins•Francis Sumner•Kenneth Clark•B.F. Skinner•John B. Watson•John Stuart Mill•Sigmund Freud
Levels of Analysis•Biological – Neuroanatomy, animal research, brain imaging, etc. •Individual – Personality, gender, decision making, memory, etc. •Social – Groups, relationships, attitudes, stereotypes, etc. •Cultural – Norms, beliefs, values, ethnicity, etc.
Chapter 2•Primary goals of science:–Description - what?–Prediction - when? –Control - what cause?–Explanation - why?
The Scientific Method•The six steps of the scientific method –Forming a hypothesis–Conduct a literature review–Design a study–Conduct the study–Analyze the data –Report the results
Theories and Hypotheses –Theory: a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed, makes predictions about future events, and is based on empirical evidence–Hypothesis: a specific, testable prediction, narrower than the theory it is based on.