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EXAM #1 Tutorials 1-6Tutorial #2 Properties of Water and MacromoleculesWater:Water is a polar moleculeHydrogen bonds hold water together-creates cohesionHigh specific heat4 Main Classes of Bio-Macromolecules:CarbohydratesProteinsNucleic acidsLipidsCarbohydrates:Carbon, oxygen, hydrogenFormula: Cn(H2O)nMonosaccharaides are monomers of carbohydrates-Glucose, fructoseDisaccharides are two monosaccharaides-Sucrose, lactose, maltose-Formed via dehydration synthesis (loss of water molecule to link)Polysaccharides:-Glycogen, chitin, starches, cellulose-Energy storage-StructuralProteins:Amino acids= monomers of proteinsR-groups form H-bonds with neighbors, leads to protein folding
Structures of Proteins:Lipids:Carbon and hydrogen equally electronegativeNon-polar makes the molecule hydrophobicGenerally single molecules Saturated Lipid- each carbon bonded to the maximum amount of hydrogenUnsaturated Lipid- has double bonds between carbonsPhospholipids-amphipatic= hydrophilic and hydrophobic
-forms phospholipid bilayers= cell membranesSteriods/ sex hormones are lipids