Unformatted text preview: Quiz #3 Review
Chapters 3, 4, and 8 Chapter 3
Personality, Perception, and Attribution Important Individual Differences Personality characteristics Social perceptions Attribution Personality Characteristics Locus of Control = the degree to which individuals perceive control over a situation being internal or external Selfefficacy = an individuals beliefs and expectations about his or her ability to accomplishes a specific task Personality characteristics Continued... Selfmonitoring = extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations Positive/Negative Affect = an individuals tendency to accentuate the positive/negative aspects of himself or herself, other people, and the world in general Social Perceptions What is social perception?
the process of interpreting information about another person What influences social perception? Characteristics of the perceiver Characteristics of the target Characteristics of the Situation Barriers to Social Perception Barriers to Social Perception Selective perception = selecting information that supports our individual viewpoints and discounting information that threatens our view points Stereotyping = we generalize and do not allow an individual `s strengths and weaknesses to be relevant to our perception Barriers to Social Perception Continued... Firstimpression error = tendency to form lasting impressions based on the initial meeting or perception Projection = assume that other people are similar to us and that our values and beliefs are appropriate Selffulfilling prophecy = our expectations about people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are fulfilled Attribution Internal and External Attributions Attribution Biases Fundamental attribution error = the tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else behavior Selfserving = the tendency to attribute one's successes to internal causes and one's failures to external causes Chapter 4
Attitudes, Values, and Ethics Attitudes What is an attitude?
psychological tendency expressed by evaluation an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor What is the ABC Models? How are Attitudes Formed? The ABC Model
1. 1. Affect = the emotional component of attitudes Behavioral Intentions = the actions are individual would take given the opportunity 1. Cognition = verbal statement's regarding one's belief about a specific person or situation which reflect perceptions and attitudes *Cognitive dissonance = state of tension that is produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior How are attitudes formed?
1. Direct Experiences Social Learning = the process of deriving attitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations, and culture (i.e. modeling) 1. Changing Attitudes: Persuasion Source Characteristic = persuader may have impact on target through expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, and/or likeability Target Characteristics = difficult to persuade individuals with high selfesteem, who are resistant to change, or who are negative Changing Attitudes: Persuasion Continued... Message Characteristics = people react either negatively or positively to the message content and perceived intent of the persuader Cognitive Routes to Persuasion Central Route = involves direct cognitive processing content of the message is very important Peripheral Route = based on characteristics of the persuader or the methods of presentations *individuals involvement is important Values Values = Enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence Instrumental Values = represent the acceptable behaviors to be used in achieving some end state (ambition, honesty, selfsufficiency, courage etc.) Terminal Values = represent the goals to be achieved or the end states of existence (world peace, family security, freedom, happiness etc.) Ethics
Ethical Behavior: Acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society Stages of Cognitive Moral Development: 3 Levels
1. Preconventional Level
1. Stage 1: base decisions on rewards, punishments, and selfinterest 2. Stage 2: follow rules only if it is in their immediate interest to do so 2. Conventional Level Stage 3: try to live up to the expectations of people close to them Stage 4: broaden to include society laws Stages of Cognitive Moral Development: 3 Levels 3. Principled Level
1. Stage 5: base decisions on principles of justice and rights 2. Stage 6: follow selfselected ethical principles Chapter 8
Work Teams and Groups Group Behavior Norms of Behavior = standards a work group uses to evaluate the behavior of it's members (stated & implied) Group Cohesion = "interpersonal glue"
(too cohesive may lead to groupthink) Group Behavior Continued... Social Loafing = failure of a group member to contribute personal time, effort, thoughts or other resources to the group Loss of Individuality = individual group members lose selfawareness and its accompanying sense of accountability, inhibition, and responsibility for individual behavior Stages of Group Development
1. Mutual Acceptance = focus on interpersonal relationships (trust, emotional comfort, authority issues may arise etc.) 1. Decision Making = emphasizes decision making activities related to the task and how it should be accomplished, authority issues addressed Stages of Group Development Continued...
1. Motivation and Commitment = self motivation and motivation of group members is primary focus (maintenance functions) 1. Control and Sanctions = positive and negative sanctions used in this stage to control member behavior Task vs. Maintenance Functions: What are they? Task Functions = an activity directly related to the effective completion of a team's work Maintenance Functions = relate to satisfying interpersonal needs within the group or team Task vs. Maintenance Functions: Examples Initiating activates Seeking information Giving information Elaborating concepts Coordinating activities Summarizing ideas Testing ideas Evaluating effectiveness Diagnosing problems Task Functions Maintenance Functions Supporting others Following others' leads Gatekeeping communication Setting standards Expressing feelings Testing group decisions Consensus testing Harmonizing conflict Reducing tension Empowerment: Required Skills Competence skills Process skills Cooperative and helping behaviors Communications Skills SelfManaged Teams Benefits Positively impact employee attitudes Enhances productivity Good in the long run Drawbacks Does not positively affect absenteeism and turnover Possibility of groupthink Take a while to reach full potential Team Environment: The Manager's Role What is the manager's role? create an organization environment that promotes and supports work teams What can a manager do to increase team functioning? Set limits, remove barriers, establish flexible charters Teach, listen, solve problems, manage conflict Nurture the development and performance of the team Questions? ...
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- Fall '06
- Psychology, Group development, cognitive moral development, maintenance functions, Social perceptions Attribution