Drosophila melanogaster PH - Paola Hernandez Introduction...

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Paola Hernandez Introduction: Drosophila melanogaster is a fruit fly, which is used in biological research, particularly in genetics. The scientific name Drosophila means “lover of dew” which implies that this species requires moist environments to survive. It belongs to the order of Diptera, therefore will mature through complete metamorphosis. It is a 3 mm, two-winged insect, with three body segments consisting of the head, thorax, and abdomen and has three pairs of segmented legs. It is a good model in Genetics because it is small, can be easily cultivated in the laboratory, short life cycle, easy to keep large quantities, and the entire genome has been sequenced. The Drosophila genome consists of four pairs of chromosomes, three autosomal pairs, and two sex chromosomes. Its life cycle goes through four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. It takes about twelve days to become fully mature (Figure 2). At Day 0, the female fly lays its eggs. Day 1, the eggs hatch and enter the first instar at Day 2. At Day 3, they reach the second instar, which then enters the third instar at Day 5, which lasts for two days. At Day 7, pupal formation begins and at Day 11-12, the adult arises from the pupa shell, which is known as eclosion. After eclosion, females will become sexually mature within 8-10 hours. Drosophila melanogaster has a simple behavior, as they are easily drawn to the smell of any food source and will mate with any individual of the opposite sex. They are sensitive to air currents, their eyes are sensitive to different light intensities, and instinctively fly away when a shadow or movement is sensed. Wild type Drosophila have red eyes, a beige body color, their wings are full, round, and pass beyond the abdomen, and have transverse black rings across their abdomen (Figure 1). Female flies
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2008 for the course BIO 2322 taught by Professor Spotswood during the Spring '08 term at The University of Texas at San Antonio- San Antonio.

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Drosophila melanogaster PH - Paola Hernandez Introduction...

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