Master Notes

Master Notes - Modern Middles East Notes Islam- One of the...

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Modern Middles East Notes Islam- One of the 3 great Abrahamic religions - means submission - Originates in the 7 th century Arabia (Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait etc. ) - Muhammad is born in Mecca - Born around 570, k now for his honesty, is a merchant - Was a deep thinker; went to reflect outside Mecca had a vision Angel Gabriel appeared, delivered the word of God. First word revealed to him was “iqra” which means recite - Revelations continues and make up the entirety of the Quar'an (recitation) - Quar'an is not divinely inspired, it is the literal word of God - His family and friends become the first followers of Islam - Centered in Mecca and Medina Quar'an - Tone is of morality, tells how to live one's life - 2 important ideas: monotheism and justice, especially social justice - the only way to live morally is to submit oneself to God's will - The Covenant - With God and all of humanity, not just Muslims - Everyone is born knowing there is one God, outsides forces warp this belief - Recognizes Jesus, Moses, Abraham as prophets - Prophets remind people of the covenant - Muhammad is the last prophet. There will be no more warnings - Allah - God. Pre-Islam viewed Allah as a disinterested arbiter. One could look to Allah to solve disputes. God in Quar'an is like the Jewish and Christian god - All human beings will be held responsible for their actions. On the last day, when everyone is judged those who follow the Quar'an go to paradise, those who do not will go to hell. - Can be viewed as a legal document - *Prophet Muhammad was the best model of Islam - Sunna- idea of living as the prophets did. Proper pattern of behavior - hadith- reports about what the prophet did and said - 9 th century- 6 hadiths on Muhammad have become canonical - 3 Dimensions of how to live: - iman- religious belief - ibadat- religious duties - ihsan- good works 5 Pillars of Islam - 1. Profession of faith - 2. Worship- 5 times per day. Ideally done with other muslims. Women are separated from m en. Worship is different from prayer because prayer can be done anytime. Worship is communal prayer with other Muslims - 3. Alms giving- 2½ % of income. Used to take care of less fortunate Muslims - 4. Fasting- requires fasting during Ramadan - 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca - ka'ba- in center of the great mosque in Mecca. When you face Mecca during prayer you are actually facing ka'ba - Economic prosperity and religious importance were always deeply connected. Two sphere were intertwined. - Lots of traditions, pagan traditions were often integrated
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- First 4 caliphs known as the Righteously Guided Caliphs - Represented early piety, the best of the early community - Split occurred after death of third caliph Uthman, Ali was next successor who was Muhammad's daughter's wife - Umayyad family wanted leader besides Ali. -
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2008 for the course HISM 321 taught by Professor Wing during the Spring '08 term at Tulane.

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Master Notes - Modern Middles East Notes Islam- One of the...

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