Examples 4.4

# Examples 4.4 - Notes 4.4 Consider the statement"No dogs are...

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Notes 4.4 Consider the statement “No dogs are cats”. Basically, this statement says that no members of the dog class are included in the class of cats. But the statement “No cats are dogs” says exactly the same thing. So these two statements have the same meaning—and hence the same truth value. This is an interesting element of analysis into standard form (of categorical propositions). Conversion, obversion, and contraposition are operations we can perform on categorical propositions to generate new statements, potentially with the same truth value. We will use Venn Diagrams to determine the relation between the two statements. These diagrams help big time in analyzing, and therefore making clear, the content of categorical propositions. There are only two real types of markings you’ll be making on these Venn diagrams: shadings and making X s. A = All S are P E = No S are P I = Some S are P O = Some S are not P Conversion This simply consists in switching the subject term and predicate term.

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