Lec 3- Developmental perception

Lec 3- Developmental perception - Lecture 3- Developmental...

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Lecture 3- Developmental perception Notes made from chapter 10 of developmental main course text Psychologists make a distinction between sensation and perception. SENSATION ’ refers to the process through which information about the environment is picked up the sensory receptors and transmitted to the brain. PERCEPTION ’ refers to the interpretation by the brain of this sensory input. Can infants with their limited experience, understand the variety of stimuli that their sensory receptors detect? Are the born with certain perceptual capacities or must these by acquired through learning and experience? This debate on the nature vs. nurture of perception is very old, empiricists, following the tradition of JOHN LOCKE (1690) , argued that a newborn infant is a ‘TABULA RASA’ (blank slate), on which experiences are imprinted. WILLIAM JAMES (1890) claimed that to the infant, sensory inputs becomes fused into ‘one blooming, buzzing confusion’ and that it is only later through experience that children can discriminate against them. A contrasting view was presented by nativists, who claimed many perceptual abilities are present at birth. DESCARTES (1638) and KANT (1781) argued that infant’s capacity to perceive space of example, is innate. Later, psychologist of the Gestalt school in the early 20 th century supported this idea through the observation of the structural characteristics of the nervous system at birth, and claimed that far form being a tabular as; infants actively try to create order and organisation in their perceptual world. In recent years experimental psychologists have been able to make an important contribution to our knowledge of perceptual development in the infant. Researchers have found that infants are born with a wider range of perceptual capabilities ten empiricists suggested and that infants capacity to learn rapidly from experience is greater than the nativist proposed ( ). The newborn infant posses many abilities for exploring objects and events in her world, and this is enough to form the basis for rapid learning and development ( ). Methods for studying infant’s perception It is obviously hard to study infants, mainly because they cannot speak, therefore their abilities have to be inferred from their behaviour, and so various techniques have been developed for measuring their perceptual abilities: PREFERENCE TECHNIQUE- This is based o the idea that infants will look more at what they find novel an interesting. So, researchers present two different perceptual stimuli, and see how long the infant looks at each (this can be done nowadays by video, or measuring eye movements), if an infant spends considerably more time looking at one then the other, then it can be inferred that they can tell the difference. HABITUATION-
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Lec 3- Developmental perception - Lecture 3- Developmental...

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