IslamSG - Islam study sheet Caliph: from the Aribic...

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Islam study sheet Caliph : from the Aribic khalifah (one who represents or acts on behalf of another). The Caliph was the Prophet’s successor as the head of the Muslim community; the position became institutionalized in the form of the caliphate, which lasted from 632 to 1924. Dhikr : “remembering” God’s name; chanted in Sufi devotional exercises, sometimes while devotees dance in a circle. Dhimmis : “protected people”: non-Muslim religious minorities (specifically Jews and Christians, as People of the Book) accorded tolerated status in Islamic society. Eid Al Fitr : the holiday celebrating the end of the Ramadan fast; the festival traditionally begins following the sighting of the new moon. Id al-Adha : during Hajj pilgrimage (sacrifice animal) Fatwa : A ruling issued by a traditional religio-legal authority. Hadith : the body of texts reporting Muhammad’s words and example, taken by Muslims as a foundation for conduct and doctrine; a hadith is an individual unit of the literature. Hajj : the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. Also a month Halal : ritually acceptable; most often used in the context of the slaughter of animals for meat; also refers to generally to Muslim dietary regulations. Haram : “forbidden;” used especially of actions; similar in its connotations to “taboo.” Hijab : a women’s veil or head covering. Hijrah : The Prophet’s migration from Mecca to establish a community in Medina in 622 CE. In dates, the abbreviation AH stands for “year of the hijrah” (starting-point of the Islamic dating system) Ijtihad : Personal reasoning applied to the development of legal opinions. Imam
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2008 for the course RL 121 taught by Professor Prill during the Spring '08 term at Juniata.

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IslamSG - Islam study sheet Caliph: from the Aribic...

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