ASAMST 20A - China Purpose Pull 1848-1855 Gold rush in Idaho John Sutters mill Numbers matter b\/c people start to notice at American and decide to move

ASAMST 20A - China Purpose Pull 1848-1855 Gold rush in...

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ChinaPurpose:Pull:·1848-1855 Gold rush- in Idaho, John Sutter’s mill.·Numbers matter b/c people start to notice at American and decide to move.·Transcontinental RR b/c of trade, industrialization, and manifest destiny. It increased the demand of Chinese labor b/c whites were thought to be superior and didn’t want to dothe work. Chinese also paid less on dual-wage/split-wage systemPush:·1839-42 and 1856-60- British Opium War- Qing gov’t imposed high taxes on the peasant farmers, unable to pay their taxes. No land & employmentChina- an empire in decline but had lots of natural resourcesThe West imported high value added goods from China (silk, tea, and porcelain), while exported low value added goods to China (sandalwoods from Hawaii, furs, and ginseng) TRADE IMBALANCEThe West wanted to save silver> paid by opium> drugs and addiction in China> 1stwar w Commissioner LinTreaty of Nanjing (unequal treaty) – extraterritoriality to Britain, cession of Hong Kong, opening of 5 treaty ports (Guangzhou, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, Shanghai)> end trade monopoly in of Canton system.Failure of treaty to satisfy British trade and relation> 2ndwar>cession of Kowloon, opium increased and legalized, and 10 more ports.·Conscription (draft for unpopular wars)> lose men> no one works and no food.·1844- Treaty of Wangxia w US- extra territoriality for US citizens and right to buy land·1850-1864- Taiping Rebellion- 10 to 30 million died- one of the largest civil war and military conflict.·1854-1864- Rebellion by peasants- Red Turban Rebellion (Canton)- restore the Ming dynasty and upset b/c of Qing’s over taxation.·Mid 1850s- mid 1860s- Punti (Bendi or “Local People”) and the Hakkas (“Guest People”) Wars (Canton) - fought over resources and fertile delta lands, and class and family feuds w/in village b/c Canton doesn’t have lots of land for its population.·Agriculture insufficiency in Canton·1850s- Floods intensified the problem of poverty and hunger (Takaki 33)> StarvationCharacterization:Predominantly male and Transcontinental RRMostly married (Takaki 33)Unlike those in Peru and Cuba, ChineseW/ gov’t and lack of nationalism
≈Blacks and native Indian- coolie and antagonistic, heathen, morally inferior, savage, childlike, and lustful, threat to white racial purity b/c of desire for young white girls> nonwhite≠Blacks- Chinese is intelligent and competitive and ≠Indians- Chinese represent an increasing rather than a decreasing populationChristian in Hawaii by Lutheran missionary in China or missionary in Hawaii (Takaki 163)after gold rush + RR, most went into service industries especially in metropolitan areas - laundry work significant for Chinese men -> primarily women’s workdemasculation of Chinese men - stereotype of feminine Chinese menmostly from PEARL RIVER DELTA in Canton part of China (remember why?

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