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EE BIOL 100 (Blumstein)_1st Midterm

EE BIOL 100 (Blumstein)_1st Midterm - EEB...

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Unformatted text preview: EEB 100-FalI2006-Mid-Term Name: ,.,. - . _ _ Student Number:__ ____7 __ Blumstein's honor code I hereby certify that I have neither given nor received any aid on this exam Sign your name here: oPlease sign the honor code above. oPlease don’t open your exam until instructed to. oWrite your name and student number on your scantron. oWrite your name and student number on ma page of the test My; handing in the test (you will lose 10 points if you don’t!). OAnswer written questions in space provided. OGood luck & have a great rest of quarter! EEB 100-Fall 2006-Mid-Term Name: u Student Number: B 10) The sparrow species must have been threatened by extinction at some point. 11) Individuals that were better than average at remembering must have Pf - been able to pass on their abilities to their offspring. D! 12) Better-than-average song rememberers must have had more surviving ‘offspring on average than the typical sparrow at that time. 13) Any changes that took place in the past must have promoted greater ET population stability in this bird. Multiple Choice Questions For each of the following multiple-choice questions, select the best answer. There are 20 questions, each is worth 8 points. In a group of meerkats, a male gives a number of alarm calls that, in total, saves the lives of two sisters as well as three offspring of another sibling. But, by giving these alarm calls, the male was exposed to risk of attack from predators and eventually he was killed by a hawk. As a result of a shortened life, he did not produce the three surviving offspring that he otherwise would have had. 14) What was the cost to the male in terms of inclusive fitness units for his alarm call altruism? 3- 0 éZSiSlérs-x 0.6 = l. @ £35 2; nieces/nephews. x 0.29 d. 2.5 . = o.’i§ 8- 3 -30l¥§pnngx0.5 3 L5 15) What was the benefit to the male in units of inclusive fitness for his alarm call altruism? 16) The alarm calling behavior of the male was C? adaptive . adaptationist a costly by-product of an adaptation Q maladaptive e. none of the above are correct EEB lOO-Fall 2006-Mid-Term Name: Student Number: 20) The reaction of the female fly to sounds of kHz best illustrates tigept of stimulus filtering. c. 10 cl. 20 e. 40 21) You develop a marginal value theorem model to explain prey selection in squirrels and test it on campus. You find that squirrels dc n't forage as your model predicts that they should. What is the best thing that you could co lu e? you have not identified the correct constraints _,b.’models generally don’t explain foraging behavior c. squirrels on campus do not forage optimally . animals never optimize their behavior flsquirrels are stupid 22) A TA in another class claims that when male emperor penguins stand in the Antarctic winter, each with an egg cradled between his: feet and his belly, the males' parental behavior is “altruistic.” Is your TA right or wrong? a. Right, because the male runs some risk of dying during the long incubation period, and so incurs a fitness cost by being parental. b. Right, because the behavior, although risky, provides the help that is necessary to preserve the species over time. rong, because males are incubating their own egg, not someone else's. 'ad\Wrong, because even though the behavior is costly, male emperor penguins have no Option except to behave in this manner because of their high parental hormone levels. 23) In the Erichson et al. (1980) study on great tits discussed in class, birds were very sensitive to the relative proportions of cryptic prey, inedible items, and non-cryptic prey items. In which case would you expect the birds NOT to forage for the cryptic prey items? ' hen there are many cryptic items . when there are few cryptic items when there are many inedible items a when there are few inedible items e. they should always include cryptic prey in their diet EEB 100-Fall 2006-Mid-Term Name: Student Number:__ 28) Which of the following does not illustrate a possible effect of sperm competition on morphology or behavior? fi’. large testes . large ejaculates large territories d. large wings . multiple copulations Consider the following graph: Load A Travel 1Search (time) 29) For an individual that must travel to a patch to forage from point A, the marginal value theorem would predict which of the following load sizes? a. 10 b. 20 c. 30 d. 40 . 50 30) The key distinguishing feature of sensory exploitation is that a. females chose mates on the basis of their traits b. being able to maintain costly traits is an indicator 01’ high genetic quality c. Fisherian run-away processes may get started d. females chose males on the basis of costly traits 6 there is a pre-existing preference for a trait that later becomes used for mate choice 31) A pathogen that kills bananas has finally had an impact on banana prices and the price doubles. Despite this increase, you buy the same number of bananas and smoothies. This illustrates that for you, bananas a. have a low price elasticity . have a high price elasticity c. are demand driven d. are supply driven e. none of the above are correct EEB 100-Fall 2006-Mid-Term Name: g - Student Number: 38) In the space provided, clearly and concisely answer the following question. This question is worth a total of 75 points. For an FBQ project, you are studying yellow-tailed hoot-hoots and find that sometimes females may nest alone with one male, and other times they may have a nest near another female and must share the male with the other female. A) Describe a graphical model that can explain this behavioral variability. Be if sure to label your axes and explain why, and under what :onditions females \9 should tolerate sharing their mate. . Pl graphical) modal M (an l’uip eyplmn {pug behavioral} VQH‘fl/bilihd mom! 01 m polvjyny mmmold modal. W3 9 moan explains M ii- J'jg—ru 9000110 ha a ffcofld 4 Wt‘fflpfmaw and SM“ d and (M90061 wmlory M w i5 V833?“ be 5L firS+,mm05amou§,P6maia cmpwricm' ,Basi‘tall . M C {inmates warn lo enhance their reproduohrf Sui egg. 90f p c a n )l at Gemalé waMSW mnthr 0r“ gcod dCrn'my. 1+ is worth quali‘iy OPE-runny Sharing 6L motif. 02, W (cm sacnfice good [Canal to hart her own maH’. go, a male Should ’i'oleralt’. male Sharing given w ((31th00 ma: gm has good Wim. You continue studying the hoot-boots and .discover a location where the hoot-hoots always appear socially monogamous and another location where the hoot-boots are always polygynous. \/\ B) Give a general explanation of behavioral variability. Then address how this can explain variable nesting behavior in these two populations. WW0 My behavior imam (W3 van‘amm because beham‘orsare veg mum inhumcw bid MY murmms. 'Fcr exampio, in acold mi'ronrvw, mm: Wm mama logLW—- Mm plain} @395 MW' $0, Qinn w swam: ’lhafin smut {aimromruxotsgr hoorlrloois arc monogamous and m mam M polygyncvléi Wf Can ‘ln'gf W H [é ’WU? Chat/19cm 6!]me ’n’lfiU’ "Mg m behavior. In int: mmogamow swings, m'fig )0“)ng A male Car) pyom'au For mm? imp l 9mm bzcauset abundanceog Food and Shelia: ‘lhi’f aliOWC him io conformag have immy 13 M i‘. EEB loo-Fall 2006-Mid~Term Name: , Student Number: Short Answer Questions Write a concise answer in the space provided. Each of the 4 questions is worth 25 points. 34) Fiddler crabs live on mud flats where they court females and have to avoid predation by aerial predators. Crabs keep their eyestalks perpendicular to the flat ground on which they roam. Design an experiment to test the hypothesis that they keep their eyestalks perpendicular to use a simple rule of thumb: oFlee any moving stimulus above the level of the eye. oApproach or ignore any moving stimulus that appears be ow the eye. To 4691’ W5 Simple rumorb imam. Some expenmm muSHae dam fig. 10 3609th always flee £13m max/mg S’limuluSI atovem eyes. lwoutd mow: «rungg aroma above mm are riot harmw “Wile-MW) ”ilrulinl \waiwl mow Wg§ ammo! below me ego 414w Wharmm 4mm Grab. tie. golirung On Me Wd xrhaaL mid smug Wm PWVWFS') l; W cram flee men #10de mm Rom mew W rfaLi' 10 harmful) 4%:an mm ground, Man we Can minim/mi 'lhagliiwg ‘ibllow'flub ma 0% m_ ' WW 0-10on m @11th Pm mini e mum! Now be is) (grow . _ iii/$0 975404,:ny we WTITUC womol icsi'ifiiiwd shit we? WW eyesmics‘ #A n 9 iie 4m mu: Woman. "PM did noijimn M (an WPQ/nd/lc‘fflfi‘fl 0:350le are Pagi/flqlgiwar to CIVDWt WWW 141$” aiming infer m e ' . Jihwr m pgrp andicuiar eyegmim Mabehavwr Magical er hon/mg aerial Pm , r'hg - m PFCW. f."N mafia: In61 noi’ Id“ *9 envfinmm Do not write below this line Mi ‘Efin’lfi Shin/Law »@ g EEB 100-Fall 2006-Mid-Term Name: Student Number: 36) You’re accepted to medical school and are working to Nards your MD- PhD. Your lab is interested in the genetic basis of anxiety and uses rats as a model system. List and briefly describe three ways to study heritability of anxiety and briefly explain a weakness/Constraint/cost of each of them. To +69r nemabnny, Wfl‘nam maan mount of anwerym a, POPulmon. Geleor lbr very annex/IQ HHS, ano Only lair/mam breed. if . mnexr Mullah QMHC in m mmmmou- «nears 0’”le is cm urine/med L because Fl’ was paired down gmmmmy romanci— h1¢¢ Wramm- ’W wearing of mg is WW iC away: \Mflfll‘hO/l m . ’é W“ C9 Meaning, 2 anxious part“ acts nor necexanlg equal an anxious Wm WM mmmubw pam- 93. r€§ulf§ (“£1.1me (l9, represerw W W o’b \Hflww‘ylf‘jq m‘mnury. «)@ Pinol’l’Wr +£er l6 «‘0 lane (afidfifimmafigiugjfiflwr @Wrmma PM Some mat in a very peacefixl emimnw and M Omargm at my Qng’fi/Il envirmrrWW- The experiment would be “be my: r in low, we would put anxwg (MS in a 966mm or $692M Pam (Mn/mom. ’llnen put un—arlxiOUS mi; m peace or SMSC ’mls would fee. how mm m @nwvomm alQR'Crf 4m 5m; ’imit 1? Yliql’l dNXlfl’Y rm; arf gnu anxubwf m peaceml selling. we (an 46“ mar W imir may be 9013115, and nor to man mmvdflW. 1m; leer: weatms; is’ m a .3 hard it) (6112550112: mg m anxi'om: and nor "m .--r_:_. I1 In"; lgi": :fi«ifir¢fip,flflémim 1/ '1 . - 3r}? I" ‘ V "r": "3' 7" ‘-"‘ ‘ 1D CUdU-Ci’ a W'muM—W we would remove mg mast {‘9 “rtSPUnSiwa-y amue and see rimming happens. mammary IS Wily [0% Wm anxl'ay muGr be a gamma taut do mean: il— {nu—91 be. nemaw. Wagncly remain; mam; gm: is 99m, it must have been an rats mice m was caused mus iranfi'allgng’mcgsmgm' Do not write below this fine wig/151' v6 ; F (- n ' - w , at am +9 {flfvml/g I“) ,thy “I ' "KW” ( ' aggmiej’fm. 0 "1 $6166 Fm (Miriam-C ”if: L viixm l/bhll’ftblllfld. (Q ’ [Ml mm m Swgcfiu a.”“(Mumf 11 CK EEB 100-Fall 2006-Mid-Term Name: Student Number: 32) Which of the following statements is big about foca animal samples? 3. event recorders may be a useful way to quantify focal samples you focus on a single animal at a time 6 an ethogram is not required before quantifying behavior d. you can continuously record the behavior of your focal subject 33) Recall the model of moose foraging presented in class. An individual moose foraging at the point marked ‘X' in the graph below is aquatic plants (a) Intake of leaves (g) maximizing its energy intake given the constraints mposed by its rumen and its requirement for salt VII. maximizing the amount of its salt intake given the constraints imposed by its rumen and its energetic requirements “ac-.— not foraging optimally subject to its constraints d. none of the above EEB loo-Fall 2006-Mid-Term Name: , Student Number:_ 24) A bat has located and is zeroing in on a moth (the bat is very close to the moth). Which of the following is most likely occurring in this moth's neural sy ? Val receptors fire at a rapid rate causing a wing flip and nose dive b. the moth moves around until it hears a constant sound at both of its A2 receptors that gets softer, thereby enabling the moth to fly directly away from the bat /0{ A2 receptors fire at an ever increasing rate the closer the bat gets enabling the moth to know how far away the bat is at all times . A2 receptors fire which affects the flight motor neurons of the moth 25) A few years ago, some geneticists reported that they discovered a gene for human obesity. Specifically, they discovered a gene in mice that ordinarily responds to fat buildup by producing a hormone that tells the brain to stop eating. Mutated forms of this gene do not produce functional versions of the hormone, and thus mice with mutant alleles become obese when given free access to food. A seqLence of DNA that is very similar to the mouse obesity gene has recently been found in humans. Assuming that this genehas the same function in humans as it does in mice, which of the following statements is most accurate? . all obese people must have a mutated form of the obesity gene /b’. all people with mutated forms of theobesity gene must be obese % obese people are no more likely to have mutant alleles of the obesity gene than are people of average weight ff. people with mutant alleles of the obesity gene are no more likely to be obese than people with the normal allele none of the above are accurate 26) Which of the following is 39; a theoretically possible reason for males to cluster on Ieks? . leks are locations where males aggregate /la./hot shot model . per-capita predation risk is decreased when on a lel: ,dffemale benefit model C? .lek paradox model " 27) What is flgt an assumption when modeling the energetic equivalence of fisk? .3./ animals can die by either starvation or predation «5/. the difference in risk must exceed the risk of starvation for animals to forage at the risky patch ,6 patch choice should reflect benefits and costs /d( individuals making good decisions will have higher fitness than those making poor decisions 6) animals attract mates by taking risks EEB 100-Fall2006-Mid-Term Name: . . . Student Number:__ 17) Which of the following is fig; true about the sensory exploitation hypothesis? j/it requires heritable variation in selected traits /b./ it works because of a pre-existing bias c. ensory biases may be in any modality your ability to identify it requires a phylogenetic hypothesis all of the above are true about sensory exploitation 1 ) Studying twins is valuable for an understanding of the genetic causes of behavior because a. the similarities between identical twins tell us that human behavior is enetically determined. ye differences between identical twins tell us that tuman behavior is ,4 environmentally determined. . a comparison of identical and fraternal twins enables; us to test the hypothesis that some differences among individuals are genetically determined. d. a comparison of identical and fraternal twins enables us to test the prediction that gene-environment interactions shape evolution. {KY/hone of the above are correct answers r“ ,.-/ Below is a tuning curve for a fly species that parasitizes calling crickets. 100 . . wit-01¢ COCO ) Suos 19131.13 ;0 [1351133111 annelag Threshold for response (dB) N O Cricket song H O ( . _ 0 1 10 [00 Frequency (kHz) 19) From the following options, what sound frequency (kH;:) are the male flies least sensitive to? EEB 100-Fall2006-Mid-Term Name: - __ , Student Number: 37) Explain the relationship between virulence and transmissibility. In answering this question, be sure to define both virulence and transmission. Provide two examples of how this knowledge can be applied to reduce infection. virulence can be ale/fined 0C W mov+aliiy ram 01, i2 Adam 4; our pardSfiC- me iran§mi§€im ig m aor Ol’ W viruS/ diffafit pairing frommt individual) lo anoflwr. ii a virulent disease king a hoer qwmg . it musi be 925”); transmisslbm, Howe/val}? 01. mm 01498091 is non» viru'LQ/H' i}, will HOl' KINW hOSri“ % fig Quietly 0mm OUQLISQ \Nlil be [{SC Wangmiggbw' gaglmilu , m mare Vin/near a Maud if. «he more banimisrbt 1+ mu$+ be. ’ihié Mileage (an Mp us reduce .nlkcmn. in hOSpimlg, (P a rim“ lS Wnd mthu mem— muggy, gm Smudwagh W hand; «howl/guy were Seeing mm [mack Mam m Mme would be Wfi/ gag“? irémémifit’cli warmth“ Mali/laud. we can alSo apply 4mg man/ledgl bu praCli'cIng safe sex mm cmolom9 i? come gauging WHSmt’l'ifd amuse: an easy lrangmmai W M can reduce \tht’OhOY] by u§mg proiwhdn Do not write below this line 12 )6 in 0W vmznrlolgI why wage a _ good 6% EEB loo-Fall 2006-MId-Term Name: .— Student Number: on 01 Mlle — 5) State all reasons why the females of most species are more selective about their mating partners than are the males. Under what circumstances would you expect the reverse to be true? Wham Ob moé’l’ 996033 are mom Salem 0]) Meir mama paws because. llg. My WWW M “WW bu T numbu 01) W. QYlCé Mr number 06 eggs one aim-1mg $61616“ 0019 MM 10 ma+€ mm be} mam to fwduCQ MmOfi—i/iam » N50] W‘5 0W“ (m1 Won liar lémales (Le. males £th ovcrcc Qmale) wnrm gm kmaté: W per hand. My gar to moon bemn m Wm ”W” M WW 19" W ‘5‘“- hrL Wm. remakes final/among have? pwi a lot 050 parcrvrm {WW Mom Wing Such as nursing {3175,5734 A lemme Wm choose 61 mm who Will mup nor ourmoré Imbugn Mpng owl mm Feeding m: amid. male pmw'gonm, pmwcn'oh 090m Muslim. and more. Wigwam K) W Emma i0 OhooSE a m whofi Will be at good ' carcgivflr and pmieolw 100. Both er are (aces wlwre mau parcnmi mmraomw finer. So a lemme muSr moo?» 41mm based on plufiiéal'flflff (0mm). Sm mu Choose, (innate Wi'm em'dflnu 0}) good genes in hep£€% hawng geomswig g oirfgpnn . in all, chalfi are more geiwhvr beau/[St my only haw Somany egg and l m and. my warUr +0 hat-c rim irugiuzgd’ firruzéé pogbu b: WWW. i would expeorm (fut/(Q. lo m’mm IF mait’S are/lay scarce. Him; happens. males will be more seieow do erSMrC/«fhlll hm 0%?th are lop noun. Do not write below this line “a Y) mall/19 Silica/5' waxa (7:6,? lfi C’T (”fl Cfirisy? matey; limi. . J41 66 Qflfid’ 10 ' EEB 100—Fall 2006-Mid-Term Name: w, Student Number: Now, let’s get proximate. In neither case does the male provide much paternal care but they are hyper-aggressive towards territorial intruders during the breeding season. C) From what you’ve learned this quarter, which hormone is likely to have an activational effect on territ0'iai behavior? 4 momma. D) Describe an experiment to demonstrate that it has an activational effect. L17) Be sure to identify and describe the controls that you're using. T0 leer rfr' 4&qu now an null/Mona} eater, l wovdd rcmore, W lCQTC «Rom 0m. W of: mauzg (MS :13me WSW as W) \n WWW W. l mud WWI/w rfmorr.’ 4m wort l‘mm warm baa: :0. i would 41mm pour in: ’2. @rpr in a, {refill/lg mm larri'lorrod mwowrg Aunngdwl Dada/1% Calm. {F M$W€ has an non/Mortal 9.er on lax/pm, aggrcsslwc bet/Lamar, those Wilhvwl’ icglomom Will nor dt'Splag ma behavior. ”rm cmnrol 9m? wowd be a mm group OP indiw‘duaK m which WIY +ch word a (eroded. but mag would YfCE/IVC HSlDSiérom mymwim rims Wm Cm'hroi do see no it is fine Kernel/cu ohm 169m, or- if H'L‘S Barely +€§i0§+6rmL m cowh’OIQ bus 5 am ma: ogmmgm. aggrrsswe banal/jar. mm mm W E) Plot hypothetical results and interpret them. \6 The em of +654oswrme 0n hyper— 1‘65ng lvmam‘mr m hoof ' hOol'f- 0L) mules Wm mm 1;) male wmmr lab: c) matas Wear and +65mswmne.. 3, / armlm‘rhou' mil—05W and M“ KSMW, I 3;“ ...
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