Exam 1 (Solved)

Exam 1 (Solved) - PRACTICE QUESTIONS FOR EXAM l P‘ htOOB...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: PRACTICE QUESTIONS FOR EXAM l P‘ htOOB 637% sec? 1. correcting.” This characteristics of science derives Science can be described as being “self- from the fact that @ scientific explanations are held to be tentative /b;"’ scientific hypotheses are difficult to test i/ scientist are well trained and thus rarely make mistakes in conducting their research /d{ scientists only accept results obtained in prestigious universities and research centers; thus, once proven, a scientific explanation is rarely rejected Ie/ scientific hypotheses must be confirmed at least twice before they are taken seriously Answer the next two uestions with res ect to the followin ara ra h. L Dr. Hook is interested in whether people read fiififil‘gnflypesbf material at differentr'cfies. Subjects are asked to read one huggeus story, one mystery story, and one sad story, each of which was writtenbxadifferentcauthor. The stories are presented in all Isix' possible orders, with equal numbers of subjects receiving each order. Dr. Hook records the lengthgfitjrne it takes subjects to read the first 100 lines of each story. _‘ / 2. The dependent variable in the study is X type of story read by each subject /b:' order in which the stories are presented Q subjects’ reading rates for the different types of stories d. subjects' reading comprehension for the different types of stories ‘ \J N’qv . rag. . 3. A confounding variable in this study is j the type of story subjects are reading the authors of the stories )2: the length of time it takes for subjects to read the first 100 lines of each story /d. subjects' reading comprehension )( the order in which the stories are presented a. A study in which observers record the sharing behavior of preschool, elementary school, and high school children and make comparisons among these three groups. 6) A study in which all variability in the subjects' heart rates (used as the measure of the dependent variable) is shown to be due to the type of film they are required to watch (where different types of film define the different levels of the independent variable). a study that is conducted in a laboratory setting a study in which a significant effect has been'obtained ’1‘ two of the above .‘l Answer the next three questions with respect to the following paragraph. Clara, a social psychologist, wishes to study the effectiveness of two different methods of reducing adults' prejudice toward members of other ethnic groups. She posts a sign-up sheet in her two social psychology classes and offers students extra credit for serving as subjects. Students who sign up from the morning class are assigned to Condition 1, and students who sign up from the afternoon class are assigned to Condition 2. In Condition 1, each subject works on a task with a member of another ethnic group. In Condition 2, each subject interviews a member of another ethnic group for a fictitious job. After 30 minutes, subjects rate the intelligence and attractiveness of the person with whom they interacted, on a scale of 0 - 100 for each attribute. 9. Which of the following is true regarding this study 53 class membership is a confounding variable »/ /b./ conditions are confounded with ethnic group /o.’ there are potential problems with carryover effects ,d/ the dependent variable is measured on an ordinalscale /e.’ it has high internal validity but low external validity 10. One of Clara's colleagues suggests that ratings of intelligence and attractiveness may not really provide a good measure of prejudice. The colleague is thus questioning __ a. the use of two measures for the dependent variable b. whether there might be a confounding variable present in the study c. the construct validity of the operational definition of the independent variable @ the construct validity of the operational definition of the dependent variable 6. the method used to assign subjects to conditions 1 1. Which of the following threatens the external validity of the study? a. social psychology students may not be a representative sample of adults in the general population b. people who volunteer to participate may not make up a representative sample of the general population 0. students who are interested in extra credit may not be representative of the general population ‘ d. random sampling was not employed % all of the above Answer the next three Questions with respect to the following paragraph. Dr. Tran is studying the treatment of spider phobias. He recruits 51 spider phobics and has them choose which one of the following three treatments they would like to try: behavioral exposure to spiders only; guided imagery only; or exposure plus imagery combined. The treatments take one month. At the end of the month, Dr. Tran exposes all the subjects to a spider, and he measures changes in their heart rate. He finds no differences across the three groups. 12. Dr. Tran’s measure of his dependent variable is a measure, and its values lie on a scale. a. self-report; ratio b. self-report; interval c. behavioral; interval @ physiological; ratio e. behavioral; ratio 17. Which of the following is true about a scientific hypothesis a. It must be testable b. It is always considered tentative, regardless of how much evidence supports it c. In the face of inconsistent evidence the hypothesis is questioned (15 All of the above e. Only (a) and (0) above Mssume you are using a within—subjects design in an experiment with one independent ,7 variable having four levels (A, B, C, and D). You wish to use complete counterbalancing to ' control for the order in which the levels will be presented. How many possible orders of A, B, C, and D will you have? a; 4‘. Answer the next two uestions with res ect to the following paragraph. Havno Klu decides to do a study without having taken Psych 100B. He wants to test the hypothesis that drinking milk produces muscles and attracts members of the opposite sex, just like the commercials advertise. He recruits 500 undergraduates and has them all begin drinking 16 ounces of milk per day. After one month, he asks each subject to rate how much they have improved in muscularity and attractiveness over the last month. l9. Havno's study is not a true experiment because a. the dependent variable consists of subjective ratings b. there were too many subjects c. one month is too short '1 time for muscle development to occur 9 there was only one level of the independent variable e. there may have been gender effects 20. To fix his study and change it into a true experiment, Havno should /a./ recruit only male subjects /b./ make sure that there are equal numbers of males and females in his subject pool of 500 undergraduate subjects add a condition that drinks no milk and randomly assign half of his 500 subjects to it g have outside raters determine changes in muscularity and attractiveness according to operational definition e. measure muscularity and attractiveness according to operational definitions before and after the study scale; and the values or fr he values or levels of the independent variable lie on a ‘ measures of the dependent variable lie on a _ scale a. nominal; ratio @ ratio; ratio c. interval; ratio d. interval; interval ’6" ordinal; ratio 25. The appropriate statistical test to analyze the data would be a an independent or between-subjects t test 1). a dependent or within-subjects t test (B. a one. way ANOVA followed by appropriate posttest comparisons d. a two way ANOVA followed by the appropriate posttest comparisons e. none of the above . Unless proper control procedures were used in this study, a possible problem could arise from Q nonequivalent groups carryover effects c. practice and fatigue effects d. all of the above fl/ (b) and (c) only 27. Brent conducts a study on people‘s preference for sugar over saccharin. He makes a cake with real sugar and brownies with saccharin, and brings them to his local supermarket. As people walk by, Brent offers them a dollar to taste the two desserts and choose the one they prefer. Brent finds that people prefer the brownies. From this outcome, he can conclude a. that people prefer the taste of saccharin over the taste of sugar I b. that people in general like the taste of both sugar and saccharin c. that people like brownies more than they like cake @ nothing because the study suffers from the presence of a confounding variable ,4." nothing because this study should only be done as a between-subjects design 32. Because Mr. Unser used road hazards one is likely to find when traveling, and measured actual tire damage to assess durability, his study is high in a. reliability b. face validity c. accuracy 01. external validity 9 both (b) and (d) 33. In order to come to any valid conclusions from this study, it would be important for Mr. Unser to have done which of the following. a. control for the order in which each brand of tire is driven over the different road conditions yfor each brand of tire, assign a different driver to drive the laps in order to control for practice and fatigue effects. 0. have more than one observer examine the tires for damage points and then calculate a measure of an inter-rater reliability (1. all of the above procedures would be important to include in this study only (a) and (0) above would be important procedures to include in this study Answer the next 5 uestions with res ect to the following paragraph: Subjects with colds were giverl lozenges to suck on every two hours (while awake) during the first full day of their colds. Asking half of the 100 subjects to suck on citrus flavored lozenges with zinc supplied by the makers of Cold—Eeze, and giving the other half citrus flavored lozenges without zinc, researchers reported that patients who used the Cold-Eeze formula got over their symptoms significantly sooner. “The zinc group had significantly fewer days with coughing, headache, hoarseness, nasal congestion, nasal drainage, and sore throat,” declared Dr. Koff, head of the study. 34. The hypothesis for this study would be that a. citrus flavoring in a lozenge relieves cold symptoms b. Cold—Eeze is the best way to cure a cold 0. zinc stops cold viruses from multiplying @ citrus lozenges with zinc may relieve cold symptoms 6. sucking on lozenges relieves cold symptoms 35. The number of independent variables in this study is/are @one: the type of lozenge subjects receive b. one: having a cold wo: lozenge with zinc and lozenge without zinc . two: type of lozenge and what subjects were asked to do e. two: type of lozenge and having a cold 36. This study is best described as a. a within subjects design fl a between subjects design c. a medicinal design d. an ANOVA design M he results of Sam’s study indicate that sales were equivalent across the conditions of the independent variable. In fact, the chocolate was sold out in all of the 30 test locations. Knowing this, Sam should ' a. conclude that either type of promotional scheme works equally well @consider the possibility that his results represent ceiling effects c. conduct the study again, this time in more cities and more locations. (1. add another variable to make it a factorial design [@both (b) and (c) 42. Because Sam conducted his study in California, he can a. generalize his results to all big states in the US 6 make conclusions about a limited population of people 0. conclude that he has a mixed design (1. make inferences about chocolate buying behavior throughout the US e. both (b) and (0) Answer the next 3 Questions with respect to the following paragraph: I I \ Farmer Frank is deciding what type of grass he should grow to feed his sheep in order to produce the bestflwqol. He uses three plots o‘flafid'and plants a different grass on each plot. On one plot he grows “Sweet Grass,” on another plot he grows “Strong Grass,” and on the last plot he grows “Rich Grass.” He then randomly divides his sheep into three groups and assigns each group to eat one of the types of grass. He then records how much grass each sheep eats on a daily basis. He finds that sheep eating “Sweet Grass” eat an average of 5 pounds a day, the sheep eating “Strong Grass” eat an average of 4 pounds a day, and the sheep eating “Rich Grass” eat an average of only 3 pounds a day. Frank concludes from this that he should only grow “Sweet Grass” from now on. 43. In Farmer Frank’s study, the independent variable is a. confounded with the type of grass the sheep are fed b. the amount of grass each sheep eats @confounded with :he plots the grass is grown on d. the amount of wool the sheep produce e. both (b) and (c) 44. The dependent variable in this study is a. being measured on a ratio scale b. an example of a behavioral measure c. producing data that is most appropriately analyzed with a one-way ANOVA d. allowing Farmer Frank to compare grass consumption across conditions @ all of the above \ 45. If one were to argue that Farmer Frank’s measure of grass consumption was not a valid way to determine which grass produced the best wool, it would be an argument that a. Farmer Frank’s dependent variable lacks construct validity b. Farmer Frank’s independent variable is confounded with another variable c. Farmer Frank chose a poor operational definition for his dependent variable d. the quality of the wool produced is not related to the type of grass sheep consume @both (a) and (c) ...
View Full Document

Page1 / 6

Exam 1 (Solved) - PRACTICE QUESTIONS FOR EXAM l P‘ htOOB...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 6. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online