Article 27 The Father of American Terrorism Two hundred years after his birth, Americans still revere him as a martyr and loathe him as· a fanatical murderer.· What was he? By Ken Chowder ON DECEMBER 2, 1859, A TALL OLD MAN IN A BLACK COAT, black pants, black vest, l4J.d black slouch hat climbed into a wagon and sat down on a black walnut box. The pants and coat were stained with blood; the box was his coffin; the old man was going to his execution. He had just handed ·a last note to b.is jailer: "I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty, land: will never be purged away; but with Blood. I had... vainly flattered myself that without very much blood-shed; it might be done." As he rode on his coffin, John Brown gazed out over the cornfields of Virginia. "This is a beautiful country," he said. "I never had the pleasure of seeing it before." The United States in 1859 was a nation that harboreq a ticking time bomb: the issue of slavery. And it was a place where an astonishing number of men were willing to die for their beliefs, certain they were following a higher law. John Brown was one of those God-fearing yet violent men. And he was already more than a man; he was a legend. In fact, there were two competing legends. To slaveholders he was utter evil-fanatic, murderer, liar, and lunatic, and horse thi·ef to boot-while to abolitionists he had become the embodiment of all that'was noble and courageous. : . After a lifetime of failur~ John Brown had at last found a kind of success. He was now a symbol that divided the nation, ~d his story was no longer about one man; it was a prophecy. The United States., like John Brown, was heading toward a gal-lows-the gallows of war. A scaffold had been built ill a field outside Charlestown, Vir-ginia. There were rumors of a rescue attempt, and fifteen hun-dred soldiers, command~ by Col. Robert E. Lee, massed in the open field. No civilians were allowed within hearing range, but an actor from Virginia borrowed.a uniform so he could watch John Brown die. "I looked at the traitor and terrorizer," said John Wilkes Booth, "with unlimited, undeniable contempt." Prof. Thomas Jackson, who would in three years be known as Stonewall, was also watching: "The sheriff placed the rope 141 METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, NEW YORK John Steuart Curry's melodramatic 1939 John Brown,-his back to a Kansas tornado, has become the standard h.Hage of the man.