psyc exam 2 study guide - Psyc midterm 2 study guide...

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Psyc midterm 2 study guide Sensation and perception: how the world enters the mind Experimental psychology – a primary division of psychology, including theses subdivisions: sensation and perception, learning (behaviorism), cognition Academic psychologists often have Ph.D.s o Research or teaching o Consulting Memory accuracy of eyewitnesses Sensory and motor functions in technology, military o Research and applications of development o Research and applications of language o Research and applications of intelligence Ch 4: Sensation and Perception Sensation – the registration of properties of an object or event when a sensory receptor is stimulated Perception – the act of organizing and interpreting sensory input as signaling a particular object or event o Into interpretable units o Identifying what and where o Example of the role of memory in perception o Agnosia – not knowing something, i.e. visual agnosia o “The Man who Mistook his Wife for a Hat”: could name an object’s function, but not its label/ name o Vision – detecting light o Wavelength – frequency of waves per second, the distance between the arrival of peaks of a light wave, shorter wavelengths correspond to higher frequencies Structures of the eye o Controlling the amount of light Pupil – the black spot, or hole, in the eye, the opening through which light passes Iris – the color in the eye, expands to let light in, circular muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil o Focusing light Cornea – transparent covering over the eye, which serves partly to focus the light onto the back of the eye Lens – disk that focuses light onto the retina o Transduction of signals – taking light signals Retina – layer of sensory receptors, sheet of tissue at the back of the eye containing cells that convert light to neural impulses Fovea – spot directly behind the pupil, small, central region of the retina with the highest density of cones and the highest resolution Optic nerve – sends messages from eye to the brain, large bundle of nerve fibers carrying impulses from the retina into the brain Receptors in the eye o Rods - (100-120 million) in back of the eyeball, cover the retina They are very sensitive to light, can see in dim light They only register shades of gray They are not in the fovea o Cones – (5-6 million) primarily in the fovea They are sensitive to particular wavelengths Produce color vision, can tell the difference Denser near the fovea o New receptor (light inhibits the production of melatonin) Visual processes o Accommodation Muscular control over lens, enables the focus on distance o Dark adaptation – shift from using cones to rods Rod sensitivity – rhodopsin needs to regenerate after exposure to light “bleaching” in light o Filling in the blanks
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Blind spot demo, fig 4.6 Color vision o Trichromatic Theory 3 specialized cones for different wave lengths
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