psyc exam 1 study sheet - Chapter 1 Psychology Yesterday...

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Chapter 1: Psychology: Yesterday and Today Psychology – the science of mental processes and behavior Mental processes – mind, behavior – any type of action Levels of analysis – the brain, the person, the group Levels of Analysis Example: Level of the brain – neurotransmitter activity Reward Deficiency Theorem – some people do not have as much dopamine, which signals pleasure, in their system and therefore crave that excitement Level of the person – thoughts and feelings Level of the group – influences from others, peer pressure, religion, parents, what is acceptable and what is not Name Landmark Events Key Ideas Structuralism Wundt founds first psychology laboratory, 1879. Use introspection to discover the elements of mental processes and rules for combining them. It was the first school of psychology, focused on identifying the “building blocks” of consciousness, sensation periodic table. Functionalism James’s Principles of Psychology, published 1890. Study why thoughts, feelings, and behavior occur, how they are adaptive. Influenced by Darwin, Studied how consciousness helped an individual survive and adapt to an environment, focused on pragmatic issues. Gestalt psychology Wertheimer’s paper on perceived movement, 1912. Focus on overall patterns of thoughts or experience; “the whole is more than the sum of its parts.” It focused on consciousness and principles of perceptual organization. Psychodynamic theory Freud publishes The Ego and the Id, 1927. Conflicts among conscious and unconscious forces underlie many thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Introduced by Sigmund Freud, performed psychoanalysis: bringing the unconscious to conscious so one can fix his problems. Behaviorism Watson’s paper Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, 1913; Skinner’s The Behavior of Organisms, 1938. Behavior is the appropriate focus of psychology, and it can be understood by studying stimuli (response learning) and the consequences of responses since the mind cannot be observed. Biofeedback training – a person is hooked up to a machine to measure stress levels and the person tries to mentally affect his body. Nonscientific approach; belief that
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Humanistic psychology Maslow publishes Motivation and Personality, 1954. people have positive values, free will, and deep inner creativity. The client should have centered therapy and focus on the individual in order to find one’s life goals. Self-actualization – all driven to be all that we can be. Cognitive psychology Neisser’s book Cognitive Psychology gives the “school” its name, 1967. Mental processes are like information processing in a computer, studies memory. Cognitive neuroscience First issue of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience appears, 1989. “The mind is what the brain does,” studies memory.
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