psyc 100 final study guide - Psych 100 Final Study Guide...

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Psych 100 Final Study Guide Chapter 11: Personality Personality – a set of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive tendencies displayed over time and across situations Historical perspectives: Freud and the Psychoanalytic Perspective – mental iceberg Conscious Level – thoughts and perceptions, awareness Pre conscious level – memories and stored knowledge Unconscious level – fear, violent motives, immoral urges, irrational wishes, shameful experiences, selfish needs, unacceptable sexual desires, feelings, motivations Freud’s Three Structures of Personality The Id – resides in the unconscious, operates by the pleasure principle, present at birth, basic desires, pleasure-seeking mode The Superego – resides much is in the unconscious, some preconscious, internal right and wrong The Ego – resides in the conscious and preconscious and a small amount in the unconscious, negotiates between the id and the superego, Reality Principle, voice of reason Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Oral and anal stages (ages 0-3) Successful weaning from nursing and toilet training Develop oral fixation if taken away too quickly No oral fixation or anal retentiveness (neat freak if taken away too soon) or expulsiveness (sloppy, not a planner if taken away too late) Phallic Stages (ages 3-6) Boys Jealous love of mother = Oedipus Complex Castration anxiety, hatred of the father, must identify with the father in order to resolve the conflict Girls Anger and ambivalence toward mother, jealous love of father = Electra Complex Penis Envy – not as motivated to resolve the conflict because girls don’t have penises Less intense fear, not a fully resolved stage Defense Mechanisms – the ego’s tools to keep unacceptable thoughts or urges from conscious awareness Denial – truly believing something is not true or threatening Reaction formation – having the opposite reaction of one’s true feelings Repression – strategic “forgetting” of unwanted memories Projection – accusing others of one’s threatening thoughts or feelings Rationalization – making excuses (smoking is not socially acceptable) Sublimation – venting impulses through socially acceptable activities (going for a run) Intellectualization – ignoring emotion in favor of logical analysis Displacement – redirecting aggression to a non-threatening recipient Regression – acting childlike in response to anxiety Projective Tests – generally poor reliability and validity ?both? The Rorschan – shown inkblots to be interpreted Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT) – set of detailed black and white drawings, patient asked to explain various elements Evaluating Freud’s Theories The “NeoFreudians” They differ from Freud on sexual drives in influencing adult behavior and personality Carl Jung – collective unconscious (everyone born with it), archetypes (inherent symbols), spiritual psychologist, interest in higher power Alfred Adler – striving for superiority or inferiority complex arising from parents’ neglect or hatred
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