Answers to Fraser

Answers to Fraser - Solutions to Study Questions, Problems,...

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Solutions to Study Questions, Problems, and Cases Chapter 1 1.1 The annual report is published primarily for shareholders, while the 10-K report is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is used by regulators, analysts, and researchers. The financial statements and much of the financial data are identical in the two documents; but the 10-K report contains more detail (such as schedules showing management remuneration and transactions, a description of material litigation and governmental actions, and elaborations of many financial statement accounts) than the annual report; and the annual report presents additional public relations type material such as colored pictures, charts, graphs, and promotional information about the company. 1.2 The analyst should use the financial statements: the balance sheet, the income statement, the statement of stockholders' equity, and the statement of cash flows; the notes to the financial statements; supplementary information such as financial reporting by segments; the auditor's report; management's discussion and analysis of operating performance and financial condition; and the five-year summary of financial data. Use the public relations "fluff," such as colored pictures and descriptive material with caution. 1.3 A qualified report is issued when the overall financial statements are fairly presented "except for" items which the auditor discloses; an adverse opinion is issued when the financial statements have departures from GAAP so numerous that the statements are not presented fairly. A disclaimer of opinion is caused by a scope limitation resulting in the auditor being unable to evaluate and express an opinion on the fairness of the statements. An unqualified opinion with explanatory language is caused by a consistency departure due to a change in accounting principle, uncertainty caused by future events such as contract disputes and lawsuits, events which the auditor believes may present business risk and going concern problems. 1.4 The proxy statement is a document required by the SEC to solicit shareholder votes, since many shareholders do not attend shareholder meetings. The analyst can find important information in the proxy statement such as background information on the company's nominated directors, director and executive compensation, any proposed changes to those compensation plans and the audit and nonaudit fees paid to the auditing firm. 1
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1.5 Employee relations with management, employee morale and efficiency, the reputation of the firm with its customers and in its operating environment, the quality and effectiveness of management, provisions for management succession, potential exposure to regulatory changes, "bad publicity" in the media. 1.6 Depreciation is a process of cost allocation, which requires estimation of useful life, salvage value, and a choice among depreciation methods affecting the timing of expense recognition.
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Answers to Fraser - Solutions to Study Questions, Problems,...

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