Key Words Psyc 2390 - Chapter 1 Sex refers only to...

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Chapter 1 Sex – refers only to biological characteristics related to reproduction Gender – psychological characteristics and social categories that human culture creates Doing Gender – expressing gender when interacting with people, also perceive gender in these other people Sexism – bias against people on the basis of their gender Racism – bias against people on the basis of their race or ethnic Classism – bias based on social class Ableism – bias against people with disabilities Heterosexism sexual prejudice – bias against anyone who is not exclusively heterosexual Ageism – bias based on chronological age Feminism – emphasizes that women and men should be socially, economically and legally equal Liberal feminism – emphasis on the goal of gender equality Cultural feminism – emphasis on the positive qualities that are presumed to be stronger in women than men Radical feminism – the basic cause of women’s oppression lies deep in the entire sex and gender system, rather than superficial laws and policies Women of colour feminism – points out that the other three types of feminism overemphasize gender; must pay attention to other human dimensions Similarities perspective – men and women are generally similar in their intellectual and social skills Social constructionism – individuals and cultures construct their own versions of reality based on prior experiences, social interactions and beliefs Differences perspective – men and women are generally different in their intellectual and social abilities Essentialism – gender is a basic, unchangeable characteristic that resides within an individual White privilege concept – white people have certain privileges based on their skin colour White as normative concept – points out that being White is the normal standard in our culture Intersectionality – emphasizes that each person belongs to multiple social groups, based on categories such as ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation and social class U.S. centered nationalism – United States is dominant over other countries Operational definition – describes exactly how researchers will measure a variable in a study Variable – a characteristic that is studied by researchers Empathy – being able to feel the same emotion as someone else
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Confounding variable – any characteristics, other than the main one studied, that is not equivalent under all conditions Researcher expectancy – the biases that researchers bring to the study can influence outcome Statistical significance – the results are not likely to occur by chance alone Practical significance – the results have some meaningful and useful implications for the real world Critical thinking – being alert for potential biases; requires you to ask thoughtful questions, determine whether the evidence supports the conclusions and propose alternative interpretations for the evidence Gender as a subject variable
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