Psyc 2390 - Central concepts in the Psychology of Women Sex...

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Central concepts in the Psychology of Women - Sex We associate biological traits with a persons’ sex Male or female – dichotomous variable o Sex chromosomes 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs (22 autosomes) the specific chromosome that the woman contributes will always be X, man will be either x or y o Sex organs/genitalia We differentiate male or female by their genitalia - Gender o Part of their identity, who they are psychologically, social marks – observable psychological/social/cultural traits associated with a sex o Cultural conventions Clothing/fashion – wearing dress, high heels Colours – pink for girls, blue for boys Activities – domestic more feminine, athletic more masculine - Sex – stable, generally dichotomous - Gender – very fluid, continuous and can change throughout the lifetime - Transgender – gender identity differs from assigned sex (male sex wise, gender female) - Gender fluid pride flag (pic) - Neutrois pride flag (pic) o Androgenous – both male and female characteristics - Agender pride flag (pic) o Not identified as either male or female Transgender prevalence - 1.4 million in the US who identifies themselves as transgender - double previous estimates (700 000) - 0.6% adult population has a transgender identity, previous estimate 0.3% - young adults (18-24) were more likely to identify as transgender Social biases 1. Sexism – genderism 2. Racism 3. Classism – social economic standing 4. Heterosexism – bisexual or homosexual Intersectionality
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- Sexism – The sexism an African-American woman experiences differs from sexism a Caucasian woman experiences - Heterosexism – Lesbian women experience different barriers than straight women (e.g., assumption of heterosexuality) Feminist Approaches Philosophies - Liberal feminism o People believe there should be legal equity between the two genders E.g., custody laws, woman shouldn’t be just given full custody of the child o Gender similarities - Cultural feminism o highlighting positive feminine traits o emphasizes gender differences e.g. women more caring, nurturing - Radical Feminism o First wave of feminism can’t vote, not seen as people o Second wave of feminism abortion rights, prevention of pregnancy o Radical recording of society o Patriarchy – men in power, women can’t move up in positions o Sexual objectification, sexual assault (shouldn’t be dressed that way, blaming the victim for what happened), abortion - Women-of-Colour Feminism o Highlight importance of intersectionality o Emphasis on structural/institutional barriers Potential problems and biases in Current Research 1. Biases in forming theory/hypothesis 2. Biases in selecting operational definitions 3. Biases in selecting participants 1. Bias in formulating the hypothesis - “if __ is true, then __ will find happen” - using a biased theory - Refrigerator Mothers Theory o Idea was basically the mother’s fault not father’s o Autism is caused by lack of maternal “warmth” o Sexist theory: mother blamed Psych 2. Bias in selecting operational definitions - Selecting the operational definitions that measure construct
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