Chapter 19 -soc

Chapter 19 -soc - Chapter 19 Population and Urbanization...

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Chapter 19 – Population and Urbanization Demography Demography  – a subfield of sociology that examines population size,  composition, and distribution Changes in population occur as a result of three processes o Fertility o Mortality o migration Fertility fertility-  the actual level of childbearing ability for an individual or a  population  o based on both biological and social factors fecundity-  the potential number of children who could be born if every  woman reproduced at her maximum biological capacity o influenced by social factors crude birth rate-  number of live births per 1000 people in a population in  a given year Mortality Mortality-  the incidence of death in a population Infant mortality rate-  the number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age  per 1000 live births in a given year Life expectancy-  an estimate of the average lifetime in years of people  born ina specific year  Social status differentials Migration Migration-  the movement of people from  one geographic area to another  for the purpose of changing residency  o Immigration-  the movement of people  into  a geographic area o Emigration-  the movement of people  out  of an area Migration can be voluntary or involuntary
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Chapter 19 -soc - Chapter 19 Population and Urbanization...

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