ushistfinaloutline - The balance of empire disrupted Duke...

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The balance of empire disrupted: Duke of Newcastle: 38-Year reign → Demonstrated problems of gov’t Salutary Neglect: Gentle neglect of colonies Newcastle had Providence run colonies → ignored colonial news/dispatches 1. Colonial wars: Many conflicts helped develop colonial frame-of-mind and disrupted balance of empire -Jenkins Ear (1739-1743): Spain and England had fought in Indies at sea Jenkins showed an ear that had been cut off by Spanish War was between Carolina/Georgia soldiers and Spanish Surviving soldiers develop resentment for English -King George’s (1744-1748): England is able to return to status quo despite losing war 500 Americans die for nothing -Seven Years’ (1756-1763): Representatives of 7 colonies meet and form union → Albany Plan of Union (1754) Union run by powerful council; shows Ameircans are progressing towards independence Braddock (incompetent leader) leads troop into wilderness and has troop almost wiped out → 1000 of 1400 die, Braddock dies, English/colonists win war 2. Land policy British fail at territorial adjustment Proclamation of 1763: Organized colonies, set up western border Quebec Act (1774): Extends Quebec south to Ohio River, angers colonists 3. Revenue: Debt from war skyrockets Young King, George III, takes power and wanted to get things done, esp. ending corruption and cleaning up Parliament Whigs: Party that felt connection between people and gov’t. “Whig” meant anti- monarchy feeling. Part of Parliamentary Party rather than royalists George III wanted to reestablish royal authority 1760 → “Our royal purpose” to stop “vice, profaneness and immorality” 5. Secession of ministers: Pitt: Makes England fairly strong, esp. Military Newcastle: Quickly fired by King George -George needs to find new ministers w/ clean slate -George rules with weak majorities in gov’t Grenville (1763-1765): Good technician, financial whiz, very limited. No idea on future. Rockingham (1765-1766): Tied to faction that opposed Grenville, otherwise sucked Pitt (again) (1766-1770): In poor physical shape by 1766, Townshend really ran things North (1770): Shrewd politician, gets gov’t under his control -Ministers begin to debate divisive issues, esp. colonial policy. 6. New Colonial Policy:
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-Stamp Act: Colonies must pay tax → modest tax on certain paper products → volcanic response by colonists First instance of colonists really thinking about organizing Repealed within a year → precedent is not established -Declaratory Act: In all cases, England can tax -Townshend Duties/Tea Act are further tax acts -“Coercive Acts”: Final enactment of out-of-control gov’t Alienation following war, reforming King, weak ministers and taxes lead to revolution The Ideology of Revolution: Revoluiton of mind based on previous philosophy → Acts simply encouraged Core argument: Parliament’s role in colonies 1. Sources: -Classics: Sallust/Livy/Piutarch: Wrote on downfall of Rome → could be connected to current society Republic was based on virtue
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course HIST 203 taught by Professor Hart during the Fall '06 term at Middlebury.

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ushistfinaloutline - The balance of empire disrupted Duke...

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