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Core 101 Final Study Guide

Core 101 Final Study Guide - Core 101 Final Study Guide...

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Core 101 Final Study Guide Exam 1 Symbols: Symbols are a type of sign that is both arbitrary and conventional. It’s arbitrary in the sense that anything can be picked. The signifier has an arbitrary relationship with the signified. A symbol is conventional meaning that people in a society agree that the arbitrary relationship between the signifier and signified will hold. (Tree example) Semiotic Triangle: The triangle is a set of rules. It starts with a form, T-R-E-E. The form signifies both the concept and the thing itself. The form is in the lower left-hand corner. The top corner, connected to the bottom two corner with two UNBROKEN lines is the meaning, or the concept of the word (the general meaning of tree). The bottom right corner is the referent, or that tree outside. There is a broken line connecting the form and referent to indicate that their relationship is indirect, and only held together by the meaning. Epistemology : Basis of knowledge, different ways of knowing. Epistemology also gave rise to the birth of historical linguistics. Linguistic competence: Ability to understand the meaning of any sentence that is uttered, including meanings of words and sentences that we’ve never heard before. Competence is the mental system that underlies a person’s ability to speak and understand a given language. Competence also refers to the ability to make judgments about a sentence. Linguistic performance vs. competence: Performance is what comes out of the mouth. Competence is mental, encompasses more than performance. We only say a fraction of the sentences that we could say. Also, not everything we say is grammatical. We make speech errors. Performance is actual language use particular situations. Competence is what you actually know about your native language; performance is what you do with this knowledge in actual language use. Descriptive vs. Prescriptive Vagueness vs. Ambiguity “be” contraction: If a word or phrase directly following the “be” contraction is moved or removed, then the “be” phrase cannot be contracted. I am here again today, I’m here again today; Here I am again today, XHere I’m again today. Space between verb and particle, increased demand on working memory: If there is two much space between the verb and the particle, then the brain will not be able to make the connection between the two words. I called up the nice old lady, I called the nice old lady up. In this instance, the brain can process it. I called the nice old lady who had promised to help my friend who had been the best man at our wedding which had actually been a total disaster on account of the bad weather up. This sentence does not work. Internal and external causes of language change: Borrowing of words. Donor language reflects status quo. There are very few English words borrowed from the Celtic languages, because the Celts were enemies. Simplification and responses to simplification is an internal change. Simplification can be attributed to intervocalic
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