Core 101 Midterm Study Guide

Core 101 Midterm Study Guide - Core 101 Midterm Study Guide...

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Core 101 Midterm Study Guide 1. Symbol: A type of sign that is both arbitrary and conventional. It’s arbitrary in the sense that anything can be picked. The signifier has an arbitrary relationship to the signified. Its conventional in the sense that people in a society agree that the arbitrary relationship between the signifier and signified will hold. 2. Semiotics: The study of understanding signs. 3. Sign: There’s not going to be too much asked about signs. All that we’ll need to know is that a symbol is a type of sign that is both arbitrary and conventional. 4. The Semiotic Triangle: The triangle is a set of rules that everything within the set falls into. It starts with a form, “tree”. The form signifies both the concept, and the thing itself. The form is in the lower left hand corner. The top corner, connected to the bottom two corners with two unbroken lines is the meaning, or concept of the word. The bottom right corner is the referent, or THAT tree outside. There is a broken line connecting the form and the referent to indicate that their relationship is indirect, and only held together by the meaning. 5. Epistemology: Basis of knowledge, different ways of knowing. Epistemology also gave rise to the birth of historical linguistics. 6. Native speaker v. Non-native speaker: Native speakers can understand a sentence without ever having heard it before, have a common core of words, are not held back in the production of language in sentences or meanings for expression, make judgments in comparing what you hear to what you should be hearing, and pick up accents and regional variances. They can also make judgments of synonymous words, ambiguous language (meaning is important), vagueness of language (meaning is unimportant), and contradictoriness. Native speakers receive only positive learning, while non-native speakers receive both positive and negative learning. According to Chomsky, humans have an innate ability to learn the grammar of a language. 7. Language Competence: How do people make judgments and agree with one another without receiving instruction? Language is a form of rule-governed behavior. Because native speakers subconsciously know the rules, they can make judgments. But not only are the rules unconscious, they are also untaught. 8.
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Core 101 Midterm Study Guide - Core 101 Midterm Study Guide...

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